Five main categories of players and Role of the players
Marketing, Advertising, Showing the destination to others, Reporting, Forming opinions among the visitors and locals, Educate visitors about destination
•Local community residents
Especially in developing countries: locals are actively involved in the provision of tourism and also its planning and management. It provides a voice for those directly affected by tourism; make use of local knowledge to ensure decisions are well informed.
Represent the taxpaying citizens and their opinions. Organize tourism. Market tourism (international promotion of landmarks) Establish general laws, rules, regulations and environmental policies. Educate tourists about culture.
•The tourism industry
Been accused of: Being mainly concerned with short term profit, rather than long-term sustainable profit. Exploit environment. Do not raise awareness of tourists about sustainability.
Owned by big transnational corporations
Market destination( with 4 P), bring tourism to destination, provide goods and services to tourists, employ locals and foreigners, Save environment, save local culture
•NGOs (volunteer organizations)
Cause major problems, blames for negative consequences, Responsibilities such as: obey local laws and regulations, no illegal activities, do not offend religious rules, do not harm physical environment, minimize scare local resources. Rights: to be save from crime and terrorism, not to discriminated against, not to be exploited, fair marketing of products, save and clean environment, free movement
Elements of planning
Process of decision making
Directed toward the future
Enables a community to determine what they want to be and how to get there Sets goals and priorities
The concepts of planning, management and policy
By the end of the twentieth century, host communities were viewed as having increasingly important role in tourism planning and management. There are however a number of obstacles to the involvement of host communities in tourism planning and management. In addition to a communities lack of understanding the complexity of the planning process, there is a problem obtaining the representation of a range of vies. Also involving the community takes time and thus is costly and may adversely affect the overall efficiency of the planning process. Nevertheless, if tourism is to be a more sustainable activity it would seem essential to involve host communities in planning and management process.
Strategic Planning Process – steps and components
Define what the community wants to be(mission statement) SWOT Analysis
strengths and weaknesses
opportunities and threats
Set goals and objectives
Identify alternatives and possibilities
Selection of alternative(s)
Monitor and control
Planning goals (example goals)
Increase air arrivals to 400,00 over the next 3 years
Manage cruise arrivals
Increase key visitor experience satisfaction indicators by 10% Increase per person visitors spending by 7%
Increase Tourism Department efficiency, effectiveness and productivity Increase the use of existing land zoned tourism by 38.5% to achieve a bed-count of10,000.
Purpose, strategies and tactics of visitor management
Increase visitor satisfaction
Control the number of visitors
Modify visitor behavior
Manage the resource
Regulation Education Marketing
Resource modification Signage
Interpretive centers Codes of...