Byzantine Empire and Middle Ages (chapters 11,13,14)
1. Plague effects: Town populations fell, trade declined and prices rose, serfs left manors in search of better wages, peasants wanted higher wages and revolted, Jews were falsely accused of starting the plague and were wrongly treated, the church suffered a loss of prestige when prayers went unanswered. 2. The manorial system is an economic system revolving around self-sufficient farming where lords owned the land and peasants worked it. Had castles, a village, water source, woodlands, fields, and mills. The only goods that needed to be purchased were iron, salt, wood, and wine. 3. Feudalism: A political system of granting land in return for loyalty, military assistance and other services. The lord granted land(fief) to a vassal or knights, and the knights use serfs/peasants to work the land. 4. Heresy is when people have different beliefs than the church. 5. Excommunication is to ban someone from the church.
6. Goals of the Crusades: had economic, political, and social as well as political goals. Wanted to get rid of quarrelsome knights. Stop Muslim attacks and control. Reunite Christendom and reclaim Palestine. Land, position in society, and adventure. Wanted control of key trade routes. 7. Justinian and Theodora were rulers of the Byzantine Empire and they are important because Justinian could call himself the new Caesar. Justinian unified the two empires and came up with the Justinian Code which had laws, thoughts about laws, ways to use laws, and new laws. Justinian created the church the Hagia Sophia. Theodora was Byzantine’s most powerful woman and she encouraged Justinian to stay during the Nika Rebellion. 8. The Catholic Church split into the Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic because of the distance and lack of contact between the East and West regions. Renaissance & Reformation (chapter 17)
1. Renaissance Art usually portrayed religious or Greek or Roman subjects. They used sculpture and in paintings the new idea of 3D and perspective emerged. Artists like Leonardo Da Vinci, Michelangelo, Raphael, and Donatello. 2. The printing press enabled more books to be printed quick and cheaply. The Bible was one of those books and more people started to read it. 3. David, the Pieta, and the Sistine Chapel were created by Michelangelo Buonarroti. 4. The Last Supper and the Mona Lisa were created by Leonardo Da Vinci. 5. The Renaissance began in Italy because Italy had thriving cities, a wealthy merchant class, and the classical heritage of Greece and Rome. The city states made northern Italy urban rather than rural which helped spread ideas faster. Some of the city states were small so that helped a large percentage of its people become involved in politics and become wealthy. They liked the style of the Greeks and Romans so they looked to the Roman ruins around them for inspiration and started learning about the ancients before them. 6. Since so many people had been killed during the plague the people who survived wanted to celebrate life and party. Renaissance means rebirth and it revived art and learning. People questioned the church during this time. 7. Machiavelli wrote The Prince which is about how to gain power and not give it up in spite of enemies. It states that rulers must be harsh and crude rather than loving because that’s the only way to keep power. He didn’t focus on what was morally right but he focused on what was politically effective. He said that sometimes a prince must mislead his people and lie to his opponents. He began that most people are selfish and corrupt. 8. The 95 Theses are basically 95 criticisms of the Catholic Church written by Martin Luther. Martin Luther was a monk and he realized that the Church was wrong. He argued things like the Pope had no authority to offer indulgences from The Bible, all Christians are equal therefore there is no need...