Hod 1000 Mid-Term Study Guide

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HOD 1000 Midterm Study Guide 2.28.12
Tips:
1 Know Lecture
2 Know how they are applicable
3 Know Lemme
4 Take the test carefully …50 multiple choice questions a. Underline the important words like:
i. “All,” “Nothing” or “None”Lemme
* Look for models on development
* Models for Understanding Development
* Trait Model
* Be aware of what the 5 traits mean
* “Openness” and “Agreeableness”

Self & Identity
3 things determine importance of Memories:
1 Frequency
a How often something occurs
2 Duration
3 Intensity

Internal Working Model:

The internal working model is how we view/what we believe about ourselves, others and the world. It influences what we expect of and from ourselves, others and the world in general and directs how we respond. It begins to form as soon as we are born and is based on experiences with others and the outcomes of our efforts.

An infant that experiences frequent abuse or neglect can develop a negative internal working model that "says" no one cares about me, I am unlovable, people who are suppose to love me only hurt or reject me, it doesn't matter what I do or say it is ineffective or not good enough, I can't trust people as one time they are nice and the next time they are mean. etc. If this "model" of self, others and the world and how things work is not corrected the result may be a child or adult that has low self-esteem, is overly dependent or independent, overreacts to situations, sabotages relationships, jobs and/successes, gives up easily, etc. Or an infant that receives consistent, responsive, attuned nurturing from his/her caregivers is most likely to develop a positive internal working model.

SocioCultural
Current ------------ Beliefs -------- Goals --------- Strategies Life Experience (affects them all)

Beliefs In:
I. Self
* Concepts
* What you think of yourself as a whole
* Efficacy
* Confidence in what you do
* Esteem
* How you feel about yourself, as in self-worth
* The more esteem you have, the more efficacy you have * Not true, typically in the African-American population; based on discrimination * Strong in-group/out-group bias can contribute to low self-efficacy

II. Others
3 Domains:
1 All People
2 Groups of People
3 Specific Individuals

III. World
1 Overall Views
2 Explanation of outcomes
3 Making sense of the world, making cause and effect relationships

Goals
4 Domains:
1 Physical Well-Being
a Desire for safety, comfort and pleasure
2 Personal Competence
b Desire for significance and success
3 Relational Closeness
c Desire for friendship, love, and acceptance
4 Self-Transcendence
d Desire for meaning and a lasting contribution to the world, or whatever you deem necessary e [Mitch Albom (Tuesdays with Morrie) is missing the Self-Transcendence]

Strategies
4 domains:
1 Affect Regulation
a Coping with anxiety, emotions
2 Interpersonal Skills
b Active listening, etc
3 Problem Solving
4 Task Management

Schema
* This is how you organize data in the world
* 2 ways of using that information:
1 Assimilation
a Putting the new information into already-existing categories b Always try to assimilate over accommodate
2 Accommodation
c When you have to change your schema to fit the new information * Equilibration is
* A sense of cognitive harmony or balance
* People desire this, to bring (or keep) their system in order. If not: * Disequilibration results
* The major impetus for cognitive development; info inconsistent with our existing worldview disrupts equilibration, placing us in an unpleasant cognitive state (conflict,...
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