EXERCISE 16 Questions to be Graded
•1. The researchers analyzed the data they collected as though it were at what level of measurement? oa.Nominal
ob.Ordinal
oc.Interval/ratio
od.Experimental
•2. What was the mean post-test empowerment score for the control group? The mean post-test empowerment score for the control group is 97.12 (from Table 2). •3. Compare the mean baseline and posttest depression scores of the experimental group. Was this an expected finding? Provide a rationale for your answer. The baseline score mean is 14 and the post-test depression score mean is 13.36, meaning they were less depressed after completing the empowerment program. This is an expected finding because the researchers had hypothesized this decrease as a result of the program. •4. Compare the mean baseline and posttest depression scores of the control group. Do these scores strengthen or weaken the validity of the research results? Provide a rationale for your answer. The mean baseline and post-test depression scores of the control group are both identical at 10.40. Because this is the control group, no change in depression score is expected, therefore this strengthens the validity of the research results when comparing the control group results to the experimental group results. •5. Which group's test scores had the least amount of variability or dispersion? Provide a rationale for your answer. The group with the least amount of variability is the experimental empowerment post-test group, which has the lowest standard deviation of 7.28. The lower the standard deviation, the lower the variability because they are directly related. •6. Did the empowerment variable or self-care self-efficacy variable demonstrate the greatest amount of dispersion? Provide a rationale for your answer. Because the self-care self-efficacy experimental group’s baselines score has the highest standard deviation of 14.88 when compared to the empowerment variable, it has the greater...

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HLT362 Module 5 Exercise 27 Simple Linear Regression
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What are the independent and dependent variables in Figures 2, A, B, and C? How would you describe the relationship between the variables in Figures 2, A, B, and C?
What are the independent and dependent variables in Figures 3, A, B, and C? How would you describe the relationship between the variables in Figures 3, A, B, and C?
Was there a significant difference in the y intercept for the lines of best fi t in Figure 2 from the y intercept for the lines of best fi t in Figure 3? Provide a rationale for your answer.
Ŷ represents the predicted value of y calculated using the equation Ŷ a bx. In Figure 2, the formula for SBP is Ŷ 43.2 0.17x. Identify the y intercept and the slope in this formula. What does x represent in this formula?
In the legend beneath Figure 2, the authors give an equation indicating that systolic blood pressure is SBP 43.2 0.17x. If the value of x is postnatal age of 30 hours, what is the value for Ŷ or SBP for neonates ≤1,000 grams? Show your calculations. In the legend beneath Figure 2, the authors give an equation indicating that systolic blood pressure is SBP 50.3 0.12x. If the value of x...

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HLT362 Module 4 Exercise 36
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The researchers found a significant difference between the two groups (control and treatment) for change in mobility of the women with osteoarthritis (OA) over 12 weeks with the results of F(1, 22) 9.619, p 0.005. Discuss each aspect of these results.
State the null hypothesis for the Baird and Sands (2004) study that focuses on the effect of the GI with PMR treatment on patients’ mobility level. Should the null hypothesis be rejected for the difference between the two groups in change in mobility scores over 12 weeks? Provide a rationale for your answer.
The researchers stated that the participants in the intervention group reported a reduction in mobility difficulty at week 12. Was this result statistically significant, and if so at what probability?
If the researchers had set the level of significance or = 0.01, would the results of p 0.001 still be statistically significant? Provide a rationale for your answer.
If F(3, 60) 4.13, p 0.04, and = 0.01, is the result statistically significant? Provide a rationale for your answer. Would the null hypothesis be accepted or rejected?
Can ANOVA be used to test proposed relationships or...

...Exercise 36
1. The researchers found a significant difference between the two groups (control and treatment) for change in mobility of the women with osteoarthritis (OA) over 12 weeks with the results of F(1, 22) = 9.619, p = 0.005. Discuss each aspect of these results.
The F-value is high enough at the 5% level of significance to suggest a significant difference between the control and treatment groups. The p-value 0.005 < 0.05 hence this suggests a rejection of the null hypothesis, meaning that the control and treatment groups are found to be different.
2. State the null hypothesis for the Baird and Sands (2004) study that focuses on the effect of the GI with PMR treatment on patients’ mobility level. Should the null hypothesis be rejected for the difference between the two groups in change in mobility scores over 12 weeks? Provide a rationale for your answer.
The null hypothesis is that the mean mobility scores for both groups are the same. As stated previously, since the p-value 0.005 < 0.05 this means I reject the null hypothesis. So the mean "difficulty with mobility score" for both groups must be different.
3. The researchers stated that the participants in the intervention group reported a reduction in mobility difficulty at week 12. Was this result statistically significant, and if so at what probability?
Yes the result was statistically significant at probability p < 0.001, according to the text.
4. If...

...independent” are the assumptions for the t-test for dependent groups in a study (Grove, Susan K. p. 231). The dependent variable(s) is (are) measured at interval or ratio levels and the groups examined for differences are dependent based on matching or subjects serving as their own control are the 2 assumptions met by this study.
5. Compare the 3 months and 6 months t ratios for the variable Exercise from Table 3. What is your
conclusion about the long-term effect of the health-promotion intervention on Exercise in this study?
Answer: t=-7.75* (3months) and t= -3.93* (6 months). At 3 months, the difference in exercise from pretest was statistically significant with t = - 7.75*, P< 0.05. At 6 months the difference in exercise from pretest was also statistically significant with t = -3.93*. The result indicates that exercise variables increased significantly from pretest (mean 1.88) to 3 months (mean 2.58), and decreased at 6 months (mean 2.29) as compared to 3 months. Thus, the health promotion intervention did not have a positive long term effect on the subject’ exercise pattern.
236 EXERCISE 31 • t-test for Dependent Groups
6. What is the smallest, significant t ratio listed in Table 2? Provide a rationale for your answer.
Answer: p= 2.03*, P< 0.05 is the smallest significant t ratio listed in table 2. 2.03 is the smallest t ratios with an asterisk, indicating that...

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HLT362EXERCISE 23 Questions to be Graded
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1. What is the r value for the relationship between Hamstring strength index 60Â°/s and the Shuttle run test? Is this r value significant? Provide a rationale for your answer.
2. Consider r = 1.00 and r = -1.00. Which r value is stronger? Provide a rationale for your answer.
3. Describe the direction of the relationship between the Hamstring strength index 60Â°/s and the Shuttle run test.
4. Without using numbers, describe the relationship between the Hamstring strength index 120Â°/s and the Triple hop index.
5. Which variable has the weakest relationship with the Quadriceps strength index 120Â°/s? Provide a rationale for your answer.
6. Which of the following sets of variables has the strongest relationship?
a. Hamstring strength index 120Â°/s and the Hop index
b. Quadriceps strength index 60Â°/s and the Carioca test
c. Quadriceps strength index 120Â°/s and the Side step test
d. Quadriceps strength index 60Â°/s and the Triple hop index
7. In Table 5, two r values are reported as r = -0.498 and r = -0.528. Describe each r value in words, indicating which would be more statistically significant, and provide a...

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HLT362 Week 1 -5 All Discussion Questions
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Week 1 Dqs
1 - How could graphics and/or statistics be used to misrepresent data? Where have you seen this done?
2 - What are the characteristics of a population for which a mean/median/mode would be appropriate? Inappropriate?
Week 2 DQS
1 - Explain the importance of random sampling. What problems/limitations could prevent a truly random sampling and how can they be prevented?
2 - How large would your population have to be for a sample to be appropriate (i.e., rather than measuring the whole population)?
Week 3 DQS
1 - Suppose you hear an “old-timer” say, “Why, in my day, kids were much more respectful and didn’t cause as much trouble as they do nowadays!” Formulate a hypothesis related to this statement that you could test. How would you test it?
2 - Researchers routinely choose an α-level of 0.05 for testing their hypotheses. What are some experiments for which you might want a lower α -level (e.g. 0.01)? What are some situations in which you might accept a higher level (e.g. 0.1)?
3 - Explain when a z-test would be appropriate over a t-test.
Week 4 DQS
1 - If the result of an ANOVA experiment was "not significant",...

...Name: Zipporah Gachoya Class: HLT 362V
Date: 08/10/2013
■ Ex Questions to be graded: Exercise 31
6. What is the smallest, significant t ratio listed in Table 2? Provide a rationale for your answer.
t = 2.03* the smallest t ratio listed in Table 2. It indicates that the cholesterol level change was statistically significant from pretest to 3 months. It is greater than the given value of p<0.05
7. Why are the larger t ratios more likely to be statistically significant?
They are more likely to be significant because there is a large difference in the pre and post tested values, so these are the areas that will be affected most. Their p-values are also smaller.
8. Did the health-promotion program have a statistically significant effect on Systolic blood pressure (BP) in this study? Provide a rationale for your answer.
No, the health-promotion program did not appear to have a significant effect on blood pressure. The t-ratio is greater than 0.05 which was the initial setting. This may be because the health program didn’t cover blood pressure, or it was simply something that people didn’t think about with their overall health.
9. Examine the means and standard deviations for Systolic BP at pretest, 3 months (completion of the treatment), and 6 months. What do these results indicate? Are these results clinically important? Provide a rationale for your answer.
These results indicate that there was very little change...

...DQ1 Week 3
Explain when a z-test would be appropriate over a t-test.
DQ2 Week 3
Researchers routinely choose an alpha level of 0.05 for testing their hypotheses. What are some experiments for which you might want a lower alpha level (e.g., 0.01)? What are some situations in which you might accept a higher level (e.g., 0.1)?
EXERCISE 20 Questions to be Graded
1. Which patient scored the highest on the preoperative CVLT Acquisition? What was his or her T score?
2. Which patient scored the lowest on postoperative CVLT Retrieval? What was this patient's T score?
3. Did the patient in Question 2 have more of a memory performance decline than average on the CVLT Retrieval? Provide a rationale for your answer.
4. What is the mean () and standard deviation (SD) for preoperative T score for CVLT Acquisition?
5. Is the preoperative Retrieval T score for Patient 5 above or below the mean for the norm of the group? Provide a rationale for your answer.
6. Assuming that the distribution of the preoperative CVLT Retrieval T scores is normal, the middle 68% of the patients had T scores between what two values?
7. Assuming that the distribution of scores for the postoperative CVLT Retrieval T scores is normal, the middle 68% of the patients had T scores between what two values?
8. The researchers state that it appears that the functional integrity of the left temporal lobe, despite evidence of structural abnormality, plays a considerable role when it comes to...