History Study Guide

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2. The Atlantic Slave Trade
- enslaved about 10 to 15 million Africans in South America, the Caribbean and North America.
-The Atlantic slave trade started in the 16th century and lasted until the mid-19th century.
-The slave trades, both of them, was an enormous population, labor and brain drain on Africa.
- young and those best able to work.
- This removes men and women who would reproduce and add their children to Africa's population.
- As a result, many areas of Africa are today underpopulated. -Instead of that labor and effort going to the benefit of their native communities, their labor and effort went, instead, to benefit the societies that enslaved them. -Finally, the intellect, talents and abilities of the enslaved were permanently taken from Africa and transported to the Americas

3. The Columbian Exchange
- one of the most significant results of the Age of Exploration and the First Global Age.
- Food products, livestock and diseases are but three elements of the Columbian Exchange.
- Columbus "discovered America" and Western Europe discovered the various economic opportunities available in the New World, agricultural exchanges between the two regions led to exchanges of other items. - Within decades of Columbus' voyages, the trans Atlantic slave trade had begun and hundreds of thousands of native Americans died of diseases brought to America by Europeans and Africans.

4. The event which most historians of science call the scientific revolution can be dated roughly as having begun in 1543, the year in which Nicolaus Copernicus published his De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres) and Andreas Vesalius published his De humani corporis fabrica (On the Fabric of the Human body), although several 'failed revolutions' had previously occurred[1] [2]. As with many historical demarcations, historians of science...
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