History Review Through 600 Ce

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I. History Review through 600 CE
A. Nomads: Follow the Food
1. Satisfy basic needs: shelter and food
a. No cities, didn’t know how to farm
2. Foraging societies (hunter-gatherer clans): hunt and gather b. Small group of people traveled from point to point based on the climate availability of plants and animals in an area c. Limitations:

i. Capacity of their surroundings
ii. Inability to store food long-term
3. Pastoral Societies: Taming the animals
d. Characterized by the domestication of animals e. Found in mountainous regions, small-scale farming f. Culture and society
iii. Major institution: extended family
iv. Women: few rights, yet society was more egalitarian than the ones in the future v. Stratification and social status: based off of one’s herd in pastoral society vi. No towns=continually searching for new grazing areas and water for herds B. Settling Down: The Neolithic Revolution (10000BCE-8000BCE) 4. What Came before? Paleolithic (“old”) Era (10000 BCE) g. Homo Sapiens Sapiens

5. Transition period, Neolithic (“New Stone”) Revolution/Agricultural Revolution: nomadic lifestyles-> sedentary (not migratory or nomadic) and agricultural lifestyles 6. People figured out how to cultivate plants, domesticate plants and animals h. Rely on a varied and constant supply of food encouraging them to stay in the same place for a long period of time 7. Effects:

i. People lived in close proximities of each together=> sense of unity, build and sustain cultural traditions j. Unlike nomadic societies people were tied to a particular piece of land=> the idea developed that of property in terms of ownership 8. Important consequence of Agriculture: A food surplus k. Individual labor becomes specialized

l. Agricultural societies become more complex-> organized economies, governmental structures, religious organizations=> beginnings of a civilization 9. What contributes to Development of a Civilizations? Characteristics: m. Sedentary agriculture

n. Cities (organized into urban centers)
o. Writing (common)
p. Organized government and state
q. Social differentiation/diversification in early societies vii. Stratification/hierarchy
viii. Occupational specialization of labor
ix. Property=idea of ownership
r. Long distance trade
s. Art/monumental architecture
t. Organized religion
u. Technological innovations
10. Impact of Agriculture on the Environment
v. Farming villages began to change the lay of the land-> x. Diverting water
xi. Clear land for farming
xii. Creating farmland where it did not exist previously xiii. Building of roads to connect different towns->more alterations to landscape xiv. Animals used as source of agricultural labor * Oxen pulled plows therefore farmers could increase the size of their fields 11. Technology: Metal workers deserve medals

w. Hard stones (ex: granite) made into farming tools (ex: hoes & plows) x. Pottery used for cooking
y. Weaving baskets and ne6ts
z. Wheels for carts
{. Sails for boats
|. Most important! Creation of bronze weapons by combing copper with tin -> Bronze Age C. The Big, Early Civilizations: Rivers Deliver
12. Mesopotamia (“land between the rivers”) – River Valley Civilizations }. Ancient civilizations: Sumer, Babylon, and Persia thrived along the banks...
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