History of Psychology

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Definitions of Psychology Psychology
History & Perspectives
1.“the science of mental life”

(William James, 1890)
2. “the study of human or animal behaviour”

(Webster’s Dictionary, 1988)
3. “the scientific study of behavior and the mind”

(Passer & Smith, 2004)

Roots of the Word
psyche
Greek for the “soul”

Related Fields
I. Philosophy
Rene Descartes (1595-1650)
•dualism (interactionism) • mind is nonphysical entity • mind and body are separate, distinct entities involved in the production of behaviour • pineal gland

logos
Greek for the study of a subject

Related Fields
I. Philosophy
Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679)
• materialism -- position that since nothing exists other than matter and energy the concept of soul is meaningless • form of monism • empiricism -- position that all human knowledge and thought are derived from sensory experience • Locke, Hume, Mill

Related Fields
II. Physiology
branch of biology concerned with the scientific study of how living organisms function • Müller • Helmholtz • Fechner

Birth of Psychology
Willhelm Wundt (1832-1920)
established first independent psychology lab at University of Leipzig 1879 established first psychology journal 1881 studied consciousness (one’s awareness

Birth of Psychology
G. Stanley Hall (1844-1924)
established first research lab in US at John Hopkins, 1883 established first US psychology journal, 1887 established APA, 1892

of immediate experience)

Structuralism
task of psychology was to analyze consciousness into its basic elements and to investigate the relationship among these elements introspection -- the careful, systematic observation of conscious experience Edward Titchener

Functionalism
psychology should investigate the function or purpose of conscious William James (1842-1910)

Watson & Behaviorism
John B. Watson (1878-1958)
determinism focus on stimulus often referred to as S-R psychology (i.e., stimulus-response)

Gestalt Psychology
arises...
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