History of Management

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of Management and Management Research

History

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Historical Background of Management
Example: Weapon Production System in Qin Dynasty

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Scientific Management
• Fredrick Winslow Taylor
(American 1856-1915)

– The “father” of scientific management – An mechanical engineer – Authored 46 patents – A proponent of Efficiency Movement.

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• Pig Iron Experiment: 12 ton->47 ton • • • Better Match Follow Orders Incentives

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Taylor’s Principles “Taylorism”
• Be Scientific: Replace rule-of-thumb work methods with methods based on a scientific study of the tasks. • Discipline: Scientifically select, train, and develop each employee rather than passively leaving them to train themselves. • Order: Provide "Detailed instruction and supervision of each worker in the performance of that worker's discrete task“. • Division of Labor: Divide work nearly equally between managers and workers, so that the managers apply scientific management principles to planning the work and the workers actually perform the tasks.

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Scientific Management
• Frank Gilbreth and Lillian Gilbreth
Therbligs

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Scientific Management
• The theory of scientific management (summary)
– Using scientific methods to define the “one best way” for a job to be done: • Putting the right person on the job with the correct tools and equipment • Having a standardized method of doing the job • Providing an economic incentive to the worker

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Scientific Management
– Broader impacts – Suppressive nature of the theory
• On worker’s nature
“I can say, without the slightest hesitation, that the science of handling pig-iron is so great that the man who is ... physically able to handle pig-iron is sufficiently stupid… is rarely able to comprehend the science of handling pig-iron.”

• Managers as enforcers
“It is only through enforced standardization of methods, enforced adoption of the best implements and working conditions, and enforced cooperation that this faster work can be assured. And the duty of enforcing the adoption of standards and enforcing this cooperation rests with management alone.”

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No Theory

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Scientific Management

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General Administrative Theory
• Henri Fayol (French 1841-1925)
– Functions of Management
• To forecast and plan • To organize • To command • To coordinate • To control

– Principles of Management

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General Administrative Theory
• Max Weber (German 1864-1920)
– Developed a theory of authority based on an ideal type of organization (bureaucracy)“官 僚制“ • Conditions for the emergence of bureaucratic organizations • Features of bureaucratic organizations • Impact of bureaucratic organizations on human beings.

“ The decisive reason for the advance of bureaucratic organization has always been its purely technical superiority over any other form of organization.” — Max Weber 1-22

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No Theory

Scientific Management General Admin. Theory

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Organizational Behavior
• Organizational Behavior (OB)
– People are the most important asset of an organization. The study of the actions of people at work.

• Early OB Advocates
– Robert Owen – Hugo Munsterberg – Mary Parker Follett – Chester Barnard 1-25

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The Hawthorne Studies
• A series of productivity experiments conducted at Hawthorne Works (Chicago) of the Western Electric from 1924 to 1932, by Elton Mayo and Fritz J. Roethlisberger

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The Hawthorne Studies
– Relay assembly experiments

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The Hawthorne Studies
– Experimental findings
•...
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