African Elements in American Music
[The Jazz DNA]
-Syncopated rhythm – playing rhythms in between or against the stead beat
-Improvisation – art of spontaneous composition in music
-Call and Response – echo style (copy), question and answer style of musical conversation
-Individuality – human voice as instrumental model
Use of bends, slides and timbr (tone manipulation) to sound like no one else.
-Beat – steady pulse
-Rhythm – sound organized in time, lines up with pulse
19th Century Music Forms
-Social Dance – Congo Square (New Orleans)
-Earliest documentation of African America Music, aka.
-Ring Shout (common name)
Circle, Christian Hymns, Religious celebration.
Musical outlet for slaves.
1st true documented musical concept for African American culture.
-Work Songs, Folk Hymns
-Simple song structures (verse/chorus) using call and response, improvisation and individuality
-Both Work Songs and Folk Hymns are the grandparent’s of American Jazz music.
-Work songs: using song to distract your mind from your work; sets pace of work
-dates back to Roman Empire and Egyptian Pyramids
-Music was not allowed anywhere but church and working in the fields.
-Coded language and communication, clues of underground railroad and other information under the owner’s noses. Family members sold to different plantations. Spoke in metaphors and clues. -F0lk Hymns: ways of teaching Biblical principals
-Common theme: repentance
-No musical influence on jazz, but important in the relationship between jazz and the entertainment industry.
-Variety show, Birth of the Entertainment Industry
-Started in Buffalo, New York
-“Black Face” characters
-Jim Crowe, famous black face character
-Why did the Chicken cross the road jokes originated with Minstrel Shows
-Steven Foster, famous composer – American Composer of Folk Songs
-Used banjo. Invented by slaves
-Minstrel show transitioned this instrument into an American folk instrument.
-Show would cater to specific populations in certain cities
-Most jazz musicians got their start touring on the road with Minstrel shows; spreading Jazz music out of New Orleans and introducing jazz to the entertainment industry.
Basic 12 bar form, lyric structure (aab)
Bar – grouping or organizing notes in line and time
A & B notes rhyme. Repeat A to get 12 bar
No Verse in blues, only Chorus
The Country Blues
-Male singer with guitar
-Use of slide on guitar
-Autobiographical themes including sorrow, traveling, gambling, drinking, drug use, womanizing
-Performed in gambling dens, juke joints in the south, specifically Mississippi Delta area.
-(May 1, 1891-April 28, 1934)
-He is considered by many to be the “Father of the Delta Blues” and therefore one of th oldest known figures of American popular music.
-(May 8, 1911-August 16, 1938)
-His landmark recordings from 1936-37 display a remarkable combination of singing, guitar skills, and songwriting talent that have influenced generations of musicians. Johnson’s shadowy, poorly documented life and violent death at the age of 27 have given rise to much legend.
Chopin” Mazurka in B-Flat minor, Op.14, No.4
-imoact on jazz
-composed, not improve
-Originally solo piano, completely composed,
-Very syncopated (left hand-bass notes steady, right hand fast syncopated melodies), -America’s Early fist pop culture dance craze music.
-Originated in the black community and crossed over to the white -Youth driven
-Popular dance music, sped up rhythm
-Music publishing began
-Born between June 1867 – January...