TAP 102: EDUCATION AND DEVELOPMENT
âIf you plan for a year, plant a seed. If for ten years, plant a tree. If for a hundred years, teach the people. When you sow a seed once, you will reap a single harvest.When you teach the people, you will reap a hundred harvests". 7th Century BC Chinese philosopher Guan Zhong.
Modern theory of economic growth stresses the principal role of human capital, especially educa- tion and health. However, the relationship is not limited to income growth rates. The relationship between education and economic development has long been recognized in the development litera- ture. On the one hand, education is seen as a product of the development process that is worthy of pursuit by itself (note that education is the MDG # 2). On the other hand, education is considered a crucial input into the development process. It is considered an input to economic growth, health outcomes, institutional development, and possibly trade, among others. Although education is con- sidered important in the development literature, there have been few empirical studies to measure its importance in the development process in African countries. The few empirical studies on the relationship between education and development have focused almost exclusively on the effects of education on income growth to the exclusion of other aspects of development. The second issue is that it is not clear which level of education is appropriate for development in the context of low income countries and whether all development outcomes are equally a_ected by all levels of education. While the World Bank and other international development organizations argue for a focus on primary education, some researchers suggest that it is higher education that is relevant for long term development. For African countries, this debate has hardly began. Development
Development is a multidimensional process involving changes in structures, institutions, and attitudes as well as the acceleration of economic growth, the reduction of inequality, and the eradication of absolute poverty.
Development must represent the entire gamut of changes by which an entire social system, tuned to the diverse basic needs and desires of individuals and social groups within that system, moves away from a condition of life widely perceived as unsatisfactory, and moves towards a situation or condition of life regarded as materially and spiritually âbetterâ. âª Development is not purely an economic phenomenon but rather a multi-dimensional process involving reorganization and reorientation of entire economic AND social system Development is process of improving the quality of all human lives with three equally important aspects. These objectives of development are: 1. Raising peoplesâ living levels, i.e. incomes and consumption, levels of food, medical services, education through relevant growth processes 2. Creating conditions conducive to the growth of peoplesâ self-esteem through the establishment of social, political and economic systems and institutions which promote human dignity and respect 3. Increasing peoplesâ freedom to choose by enlarging the range of their choice variables, e.g. varieties of goods and services Development Challenge
The challenge of development
The challenge of development is to improvethe quality of life. Especially in the worldâs poorÂ the quality of life. Especially in the worldÂ¶s poorÂ countries, a better quality of life generally callscountries, a better quality of life generally callsfor high incomesfor high incomes ------ but it involves much more.but it involves much more. It encompasses as ends in themselves betterÂ It encompasses as ends in themselves betterÂ education, higher standards of health andÂ education, higher standards of health andÂ nutrition, less poverty, a cleaner environment,nutrition, less poverty, a cleaner environment,more...
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