History Notes from 1895 to the 1920s

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  • Topic: Wall Street Crash of 1929, Great Depression, Herbert Hoover
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  • Published : March 19, 2013
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1895 to 1914: America Takes the Global Stage:

American foreign policy was brought about to keep America’s own economy going. Foreign and domestic policy closely related. “Crisis of Overproduction”- America was becoming so strong and producing so many goods that it overtook the American economy and we had too much. Had to look for other outlets to sell the goods. Cannot just quit production because we needed people to keep working. Need to find Foreign Markets.

Looked to Latin America and East Asia (China)
“The China Market”- China seemed to be the key place to sell, but it didn’t really workout for America because: Trade treaties
China was a poor country
We couldn’t figure out what the Chinese wanted.
Alfred Thayer Mahan- Influence of Sea Power Upon History, “The nation that is able to control the seas, is able to control the political situation on land.” The United States needs to build a “Blue Water Navy”-deep water, very large navy, so the US needs foreign military bases, and control in the Pacific (Hawaii, Phillipines). Need to build an Isthmian Canal.

Theodore Roosevelt and Henry Cabot Lodge were big supporters. Henry Cabot Lodge: close friend of Teddy Roosevelt. “A big Navy man.” Senator Benjamin Butler: “The US needs to expand North.” (Gingo) Manifest Destiny- It was Americas right to travel and expand their borders. Anglo-Saxonism- the rights of the white people to spread, White man was Godly, it was their “moral obligation” as a white Christian nation to uplift and educated and spread it’s own beliefs.. “The White Man’s Burden.”

America in the Jazz Age (1920-1929)

Sedition Act: forbid anyone from speaking out against the war. One man got 20 years in jail for writing anti-war editorials. First Red Scare: Led by two people, A Mitchell Palmer & J. Edgar Hoover. The first scare of communism being brought to the united states and that there were people in America trying to promote communism. Palmer Raids: attempts by the United States Department of Justice to arrest and deport radical leftists, especially anarchists, from the United States. (A. Mitchell Palmer) First Great Migration: the movement of 6 million African-Americans out of the rural Southern United States to the Northeast, Midwest, and West for most of the 20th century.

The 1920’s era was referred to as the “New Era”
Warren G. Harding- “Return to Normalcy” after the war
Calvin Coolidge- referred to as ‘silent Cal’. Small government conservative. Succeded by… Herbert Hoover: president at the end of the 20s and at the start of the great depression. The economy was booming in the 20s:

New technologies contributed to the boom of the 20s. (THE RADIO, silent screen films, new electric household appliances(vacuum,toaster,fridge)) New methods of management including Scientific Management, where bosses studied their workers and factories to try to figure out how to make workers more productive. A lot of money was spent to experiment to make factories better. Created a lot of wealth. Americans were making more money, therefore they could spend more money. We became a “mass consumer society” Started experimenting with credit cards

The Installment Plan for buying things became popular.
Thorsten Veblin- 1898 – wrote a book called The Theory of the Leisure Class, coined the term “conspicuous consumption.” Henry Ford and the Model T: pioneered the new assembly line method of making cars. It was possible to produce one car every 10 seconds. There was one car for every five Americans. Cars were getting cheaper and cheaper. The United states in the 20s raised the Tarriffs.

Sacco and Venzetti: two men that were convicted of murdering people after an armed robbery and ended up being executed. Scopes Trial: Clarence Darrow: defending attorney William Jennings Bryan: Prosecuting Attorney, John Scopes was arrested for teaching Darwinism which was against the law in Tennessee at the time. Jury found John Scopes guilty but only fined him 100...
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