* refers to the moods, attitudes and conditions that exist at a certain time. * context is the setting for an event that occurs and it will have an impact of the relevance of the event. * helps to understand something in history we must look at its context those things which surround it in time and place, which gives it its meaning. * pursuing deeper meaning of any event.
20th Century World History
Medieval Europe/ Middle Ages:
* Catholic Church influences the Europe control.
* Pulp is the head of the system.
* Man can understand the land.
* Challenges the pulp.
* Luther says to read the Bible for yourself.
* Luther challenges the authority of church.
* Birth of Liberalism- idea can control man, individual chooses their system. * Natural Rights
* Self-Government- have your right.
* Against Monarchies (France, USA)
* USA was the first to make revolutions.
* In colonies
* Nation States V. Empire.
* Imperialism- competition for markets and resources.
* 3 G’s: Gold, Glory, God
* Marxism (response to the evils of capitalism).
* Carl Marx Late 1800’s
1850-1920 America a Rising Star:
* 1870 I want to be powerful
* Start to Industrialize
* We have land, spread ideas.
* America becomes to protect their lands.
* “ The colossus of the North US dominated affairs in the Americas” * Takes Texas and Mexican cession.
* Gains Independence for Cuba.
* Roosevelt C.- US will police the Americas.
Causes of WW1- MANIA?
* Militarism policy of building up a strong military to prepare. * Alliances agreements between nations to provide and protect. * Nationalism extreme pride in one’s country,
* Imperialism taking over another country economically and politically. * Assassination of Archduke France Ferdinand.
The World in 1914: Outbreaks of the First World War
World 1914 Europe Dominated:
* Germany was the leading power of Europe. (Military and Economically) Political System Varied Widely:
* USA, Britain, and France had democratic forms of government. * Germany Reichstag , power laid chancellor (prime minister) and the Kiaser (emperor). * Italy was monarchy.
Imperial Expansion after 1880:
* Most of Africa was taken over by the European states.
* Known as scramble for Africa- get control of new markets and new sources of raw materials. * Chinese overthrew the ancient Manchu dynasty and up a republic 1911. Europe Divide in two Alliances:
* 3 alliances
* Tuple entente
* Japan and Britain signed an alliance 1902.
* Friction brought Europe to the verge of war between the main groups. Cause of Friction:
* There was naval rivalry between Britain and Germany.
* French resented the loss of Alsace-Lorraine to Germany at the end of Franco-Prussia war (1817) * The Gramans accused Britain, Russia, and France trying to encircle them; (weltpolith “word policy”) their empire was smaller and not very rewarded. * Russians were suspicious of Austrian ambitions in the Balkans and worried about growing military and economic growth. * Serbian Nationalism 1882 King Milan, 1893 Son Alexander pro-Austrian, 1903 Karageorgevic pro Austrian. * Outbreaks of war in late July 1914.
Outbreaks of War:
* Europe divides into two armed camps:
Moroccan Crisis (1905-6):
* Germany tried to defeat Morocco in the conference (January 1906), but failed because Germans, Britain, Russia, Italy and Spain supported France to control the Moroccan military build-up. Bosnia Crisis (1908):
* Serbia remained bitterly hostile to Austria, which sparked off war. * Russians were...