History - Nazi Germany

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Nazi Germany – Unit 2

Women
* 3k’s – Kinder Kirche Kuche = Children Church Cooking * 1933 – encouragement marriage
* 1934 – encouragement children
* Traditional role – home, no prof. job, no fashion
* Mother hood cross – 4 children
* Lebensporn – Accommodation specifically for women to have children * Responsible for church – Nazis against religion though

Church
* 1933 – Catholic concordat
* Protestants – Some support Nazis – Some Opposed
* Pastor Martin Niemoller – Confessional church
* 1935 concordat broken – catholic youth movement abolished * 1937 Pope Pius XI protested
* 1941 – Cardinal Galen – attacked Nazis for human rights abuse * Faith Movement – Pagan anti-Christians - Supported by Nazis * 1936 National Reich Church – Hitler #1

Young People – School
* Future – Master Race
* Easily indoctrinated
* German Teachers League – All teachers had to be part of * Nazi Curriculum
* Jewish children humiliated
* Adolf Hitler Schools – ‘Order Castles’

Young People – Home
* Hitler Youth (Hitlerjugend) Voluntary – 1938 = Compulsary * 1939 some 8 million in HJ
* HJ = indoctrinate & Toughen children for wars ahead * WW2 – worked – G soldiers a lot fitter

The Unemployed
* AH – ‘Work for bread’ – reduced unemployment 6mil – 0.5mil * Reicharbeitsdienst (RAD) = National Labour Service
* March 1936 – Conscription soaked up 1.3mil men
* New industries – Self Sufficiency – Autarky
* Manipulated stats – No Jews or Women

The Workers
* May 2nd Trade Unions – Abolished – Breeding ground: communists * German Labour Front (DAF) – Dr Robert Lay
* DAF – No arbitrary dismissal, No unauthorised resignation, Long Hours, Strikes Illegal, High fixed wages (If not a member – Difficult to get a job) * 1936 – Wages 10X higher than dole
* 1939- working 60-72 hour a week

Leisure
* Strictly controlled – Naizs
* Dr. Robert Ley – 3740 hours leisure time – needed to be filled – boredom & frustration. * KDF – leisure programmes
* Cheap holidays
* Controlled entertainment
* KDF Wagen
* ALL CONTROLLED

The Econamy & Rearmament
* AH – Army – Mass conscription
* Had implications – 4 year plan – prepare for war – Hjalmar Schracht in charge * 4YP had 2 parts: Rearm G & Make G Self sufficient
* Self Sufficiency – Autarky
* G Produced more oil, glass plastic.

The Police State
* G = Totalitarian – One man total control – Opponents eliminated * AH – Needed strong secret police – SS 1925 (part of SA) – Black Shirts – Cream of SA – Guard Hitler * 1929 – SS taken over by Himmler – 1934 used to wipe out leadership of SA * 4 Parts Of SS: AH Bodyguard; Waffen SS (Military Wing); Deaths Head Unit (Concentration Camps); Gestapo * 1936 Heydrich ran Gestapo – Spied on Germans

The Jews
* Mein Kampf – Hitler chancellor = persecution
* 1933 – March SA outside Jewish businesses
* April – Sacked Civil services
* Sept. – Not allowed to inherit land
* 1935 Banned from public places; deprived citizenship & vote – THE NUREMBURG LAWS * 1938 – Doctors qualifications cancelled – Children named from proscribed list * Nov. 9th KRISTALNACHT (Night Of Broken Glass)

Kristalnacht – The Final solution
* Sep 1939 – WW2 began. – Jews in occupied countries persecuted, Ghettos labour camps * Einsatzgruppen (special squads)
* 1942 – Wansee conference – Final Solution
* Auschwitz – Gas Chambers – Zyclon B – Bodies burned in ovens * Continued utill 1945
Justice
* Judges appointed by Nazis
* Law based upon Nazi programme and what AH said
* Roland Freisler – Screamed & bullied defendants who went against Nazi’s Propaganda & Censorship
* Goebbels – Minister of national enlightenment
* Censorship: Newspapers; Art; Films – Tarzan too rude
* Jazz - Banned – Black origins...
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