History Extension notes

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Phillips (2002)
Bull (1999)
Tyerman (2006)
Religion
‘God’s favour dictated much of their lives, and explained both natural and man-made events’ Eternal damnation – ‘A prime concern for the medieval man was to avoid the terrors of the afterlife’ – ‘torments of hell so violently depicted’ Pilgrimage was extremely popular – saints used as intermediaries Need to atone for one’s sins – emphasised by reform of the papacy Stereotypes of Islam and Muslims as ‘idolatrous polytheists’ Perception of Crusades as contest between faiths fuelled by religious fanaticism – bound up by modern sensibilities about religious discrimination with resonances to political conflicts – rejected perception Idea of Pilgrimage – ‘The crusade was proposed as a devotional act of pilgrimage, and therein lay its attraction’ Fear of Hell - ‘No aspect of human conduct and social interaction was immune from the taint of sinfulness’ as means of maintaining social cohesion Sensitivity to communal pressure – religious guilt embedded into society The Old Testament – stories of war against God’s enemies, fed the ‘world view’ of Crusaders that it was okay to fight for God and use Violence in God’s name ‘Peace of God’ and ‘Truce of God’ movements defined knight as champion of Christian peace – protect church – amend sins and alleviate God’s punishment for violence – these provided justification for knights who were ‘forbidden to pursue their profession (violence) within Christendom’ Violence

‘The violence of the crusading age cannot, and should not, be denied, yet this must be seen in the context of Western European society of the time’ Localized warfare was a perpetual danger
‘Violence was endemic and in itself, unremarkable’
‘Brutality was so common if often became ritualistic’
Validation by the state of mind, the ends sought, competence of the individual Representation of Violence – excessive and exaggerated – historian bias in protection of own faiths Only acceptable towards infidel – oaths exacted under peace of god protected monks, clergy, weak, vulnerable and poor Papacy

Education limited to monasteries – paradox was not obvious ‘Ecclesiastical direction of violence through peace of God’ Localised and inward looking institution primarily concerned with politics rather than leadership of the Catholic Church Approach to violence – impose degree of systemization based on Roman Law, Old and New Testaments and early Christian fathers to analyse and pronounce quality of violence ‘Ideological flexibility’

Interest in warfare – encouraged towards infidel, particularly Muslims Supportive of Colonialism
Launching of first crusade was made possible by revolution of Pope Gregory VII – introduce greater consistency – allowed Urban to mobilise resources, enthusiasm, communication skills – collective body of support Gregory VII reform of papacy – ‘The main thrust of papal reform was towards restoring to the church the pristine autonomy and spirituality of the Acts of the Apostles’ Use of ‘Temporal weapons’

Christian faith and ‘Just war’ became inextricably linked – fought pagan enemies in God’s name History
Historical legacy of brutality and fanaticism
Military orders, link of institutions with crusading – both important foundations Charter evidence of ecclesiastical institutions to raise money to expedite to the Levant Official documents of papal calls

Songs by laymen show concerns of secular society
Highly localized world
‘Society dominated by violence and religion’
‘Colonialism brought on by religious and largely political stimulus’ Colonialism – exploit political weakness in Muslim areas
‘Consequently the Holy Land, which had been overrun by the Arabs in the 7th century, was bound to attract the Church’s attention sooner or later’ ‘Western Europe’s religious, cultural, and social experience can account for enthusiastic interest’ Thorough militarization of society

Great nobles ‘who ruled’ were able to exploit surviving institutions Feudal...
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