History Exam Study Guide

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John Locke- an English philosopher in the 17-18th century. The significance was that John Locke was the advocate for the idea of popular sovereignty during the Enlightenment era which led to the American, French, Haitian, and Latin revolutions. Sepoys- Indian troops under British command in the 18th century. The significance is the sepoys were the cause of the Indian rebellion in 1857 that made formally transformed India into a British colony. Berlin Conference- a conference during (1884-1885) that included delegates of twelve European states, including the United States and Ottoman Empire. The significance is it set the ground rules for the colonization of Africa. Simon Bolivar- a creole leader that led the independence movement in South America in the 18th -19th century. The significance is that it led to the defeat of Spain and the independence of South America (Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador). Zaibatsu- private investors that the government sold its enterprises to in the 1880s. The significance was that it brought about the formation of financial cliques and made Japan a major industrial power in the 19th century. *Powerful trusts or cartels that had the support of the imperial government. Calico Acts- a series of laws made in 1720-1721 by the British government. The significance is it protected the domestic wool industries and prohibited the imports of printed cloth and restricted the sale of calicoes. *Had the unexpected consequences of stimulating cotton production in Great Britain. Railroad- a form of transportation that first began in the 19th century. The significance was it facilitated industrialization and imperialism and presented a faster, easier, and more efficient way of the transportation of people and goods as well as linked distant societies and regions together. *Served as an instrumental factor in the industrialization of Russia. Social Darwinism- the theory “survival of the fittest” that was encouraged by the English philosopher Herbert Spencer in the 19th century. The significance was it served as a justification for the imperialism of the major powers on the weaker, smaller nations. The Boxers- a militia unit known as the Society of Righteous and Harmonious Fists. The significance is with the support of the Qing dynasty ,the boxers was the cause of the anti-foreign uprising in the 18th century known as the Boxer rebellion which resulted in defeat and the bankruptcy of Qing dynasty. *Organized to rid the foreign devils and their influences from their homeland. Proletariat- a Marxist term created in the 19th century that referred to the working class of the industrial society. The significance is that it created an idea that the working class will overthrow the capitalist and to try and abolish capitalism from society.

Factory System- a system that first began in England, in the late 18th century that involved each worker performing a single task rather than one worker completing the entire job. The significance is that it replaced the putting-out system and guilds and created the new division of labor.

*Profoundly altered how people of industrialized societies related to each other and their environment. The National Assembly- an assembly founded by the people of the third estate in 1789. The significance was the National Assembly brought new political and social order to France that resulted in the French Revolution.

Utopian Socialism- a theory associated with Robert Owen and Charles Fourier, that first appeared around 1830. The significance was that it called for an equitable society and brought about a new way of social reformation where an example was set by establishing a school and hospital for the workers near Owen’s factory. *An alternative economic system and social experiment best associated with Robert Owen. Louverture- “the opening” was the name that Francois-Dominique Toussaint named himself in 1791. The significance was that Louverture led the first and only successful slave...
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