The smaller essay will be worth 25 points
1. Who did big-city machines work with to solidify their control? P 594 a. state legislatures is who they began to work with
2. What did the systematic disenfranchisement of African American voters result in? p 596 b. Stripped black communities of any political power
3. Why did Southern Progressives support the disfranchisement and segregation of African Americans? P 596 c. Believed they were necessary preconditions for political and social reform 4. Like Walter Lippmann, sociologist Lester Frank Ward debunked Social Darwinism on what grounds? P 589 d. They had wrongly applied evolutionary theory to human affairs. They had confused organic evolution with social evolution. Nature’s method was genetic: unplanned, involuntary, automatic and mechanical. 5. What did the Woman’s Christian Temperance Union’s efforts at prohibition and other social reforms allow women to do? P 596 e. Provided women with a political forum in which they could fuse their traditional moral posture as guardians of the home with broader public concerns. 6. Why did many businessmen support prohibition? 596
f. Saw a link between closing a community’s saloons and increasing the productivity of workers. 7. By supporting prohibition and ending prostitution, what did the progressive reformers hope to achieve? 597 g. Help regulate the new medium as a way of improving the commercial recreation of the urban poor. 8. What was the most important trend in public education during the Progressive era? 600 h. The expansion and bureaucratization of the nations public school systems 9. The ready-to-wear garment industry predominantly employed what ethnic group? 604 i. Primarily Jewish immigrants
10. Why was the Ludlow Massacre significant? 605
11. Why did President Theodore Roosevelt support the Hepburn Act and the Pure Food and Drug Act? 612 k. Insisted on the right and power of the federal government to reign in excessive corporate behavior. 12. Why did Margaret Sanger and fellow advocates want birth control? 609 l. Advancing sexual freedom for middleclass women, as well as responding to the misery of those working class women who bore numerous children while living in poverty. 13. Why did Social Darwinist believe racism was acceptable toward African Americans? 609 m. Blacks were a “degenerate” race, genetically predisposed to vice, crime, and disease and destined to lose the struggle of existence against whites. Believed they were inferior and were exposed to crime. 14. What was the National Association of Colored People’s journal called? 610 n. The Crisis
15. What were the basic tenets of Wilson’s New Freedom? o. ???
16. Who were the “Muckrakers”? 589
p. David Graham Phillips and his colleagues
17. Who advocated that blacks and whites could be socially “as separate as the fingers” on a hand? 609 q. Booker T Washington
18. What had Taft done to encourage Roosevelt to enter the l912 presidential race? 614 r. Alienated Roosevelt and many other progressives
19. Passage of the Underwood Simmons Tariff was made possible by which Amendment and what did it establish? 615 s. 16th amendment; substantially reduced tariff duties on a variety of raw materials and manufactured goods, including wool, sugar, agricultural machinery, shoes, iron and steel. Also imposed the first graduated tax on personal income. 20. What was the most significant factor that helped Wilson win the 1912 Presidential election? 615 t. split between the...