History 53 Judaism

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HISTORY 53 FINAL

1 Id-According to the Old Testament, what massacre took place shortly after Moses received the 10 Commandments and why did it take place? Briefly list the main events in Moses’ life according to the Old Testament. Do any Egyptian sources confirm the events narrated in the Old Testament?

2 Id- When was the kingdom of Judah conquered by the Babylonians? Who destroyed the northern kingdom (Israel) and when? Who were the Prophets within Judaism and what was the focus of their message? How what they did and said can be compared to what Jesus did and said? When did Jewish people transition from pastoralism to agriculture and from being nomadic to sedentary?

3 Id-Where and when did Zoroastrianism originate? How did it influence Judaism in terms of the figure of the devil and the idea of afterlife? List 4 ways in which it influenced all Western religions and explain why some people argue that Zoroastrianism provides the foundation for much of Judaism, Christianity and Islam.

4 Id- When and why was the Temple in Jerusalem destroyed for the last time? Explain the differences between Sadducees, Zealots and Essenes. What was the Maccabean Revolt? What festivity celebrates this event? In terms of the 6 Ways, how did Judaism change after the destruction of the temple?

5 Id-What are the similarities and differences between Orthodox, Reform, Conservative and Reconstructionist Judaism? In term of the 6 ways, what is the difference between the Kabbalah and Hasidic mysticism?

6 E-When was the modern State of Israel established? How long had it been since the last time that an independent Jewish state existed? Why is the state of Israel opposed by many Muslim states in the region? Which religions consider Jerusalem a sacred city? What does the term Zionism mean? How did the Enlightenment improve the condition of Jewish peoples in Europe? List 3 examples of European antisemitism. What kind of rationale did Christianity provide for antisemitism? Were Jewish people in Spain treated better under Islamic or Christian rule? When did the Holocaust take place? Approximately how many Jews died because of it?

7 E-Who was Mithra? List 3 similarities between Mithra’s and Jesus’ story? Why did Mithraism disappear? Approximately, how many people follow one of the forms of Christianity? Do we have any independent sources about Jesus written during his lifetime? What are the Gospels? Approximately when were they written? Roughly how many Gospels were written? When were the 4 Gospels canonized? Why is the information you provided so far problematic? What is the Gospel of Thomas? Is it part of the Bible? List at least 2 instances in which the Gospels contradict each other.

8 Id-What is the Resurrection? Which other gods in the Greco-Roman world were said to have been resurrected? What do the Gospels tell us about Jesus childhood, adolescence and early adulthood? Why was Jesus crucified? What was the relationship between Jesus and the Judaism of his times (similarities and differences)?

9 Id- What religion did Jesus practice? What was Jesus’ position on judging others, on accumulation of wealth, on patriotism, and on separation of state and religion? How is this similar and/or different from the positions later taken by mainstream Christianity?

10 Id-Who was John the Baptist? What did Jesus do for 40 days in the desert? What was the political situation during Jesus’ life in his own homeland? Who were the Magi?

11 Id-Who were St. Paul and St. Augustine? When did they live? Why do some people suggest that they may be more important in the history of Christianity than Jesus himself? How did the idea of the end of the world shape Paul’s message? How did the position of Christianity within the empire change by Augustine’s time and how was his message influenced by this new context?

12 Id-What did the Edict of Theodosius in 395 say? Who was Constantine and why is he important in Christian history? The...
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