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History 4a Notes

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History 4A Lecture Notes Fall 2012

The Origins of Western Civilization: The Ancient Mediterranean World

8/24/12
Introduction (power point on bspace contains images if desired) * Instructor: Carlos Norena
* GSI: Patrick Clark, Brendan Haug, John Olmsted, Norman Underwood * historia (history) – Greek, lit. “inquiry, learning by inquiry; a [written] account of what has been learned by inquiry” Resources of History (example)

* clay prism (Sumerian King List)
* marble etchings (Athenian Decree)
* bronze tablet (Statue of Power of Emperor Vespasian)
* coinage (currency of Alexander the Great)
* papyrus (tax receipt from Egypt)
* archaeological remains (city of Pompeii)
* monuments (Great Pyramids at Giza)
* pottery (Athenian Black-Figure Jug)
* statues (“Dying Gaul” in bronze)
* lost and disposed objects (jewelry; garbage)
Note on Chronology and Dating
* Olympic Era Calendar
* begin at year 1.1 equivalent to 776 BC
* lines up with the Olympic Games
* every year adds 0.1 up to 0.4 total, then begins at 0.1 with first digit increased * 775 BC=1.2, 774 BC=1.3, 773 BC=1.4, 772 BC=2.1, etc. * Roman Calendar
* Ab Urbe Condita (“from the founding of the city”) * begin dating from supposed founding of Rome in 753 BC * 752 BC=2, 751 BC=3, etc.
* Regarding Months
* most previous calendars based on lunar cycle
* Egypt based on solar cycle with arbitrary 12 months
* Caesar apply this to Roman Calendar
* Pope Gregory in 15th to 16th century cuts 10 days to balance out dating * add leap year for every 4 years
* presently cut 3 leap years every 400 years
* Modern Calendar
* designed by Dionysius Exiguus
* BC = Before Christ
* AD = Anno Domini (“in the year of the lord”)
* there is no year 0; just 1 BC to 1 AD
* New Calendar
* BCE = Before Common Era
* CE = Common Era
*...