History 28.1 Notes

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The Televised Debate Affects Votes
• Americans fear U.S. falling behind Soviets militarily
• John F. Kennedy, Democratic nominee from Massachusetts, discusses Catholicism openly, allays public worries
• First televised presidential debate between Kennedy, Richard Nixon • Nixon is foreign policy expert • Kennedy coached by TV producers, comes across better than Nixon Kennedy and Civil Rights • JFK takes stand on arrest of Martin Luther King, Jr; wins black vote The Camelot Years The Kennedy Mystique

• Kennedy wins presidency in close election
• Critics argue his smooth style lacks substance
• Kennedy White House known as Camelot for its glamour, culture, wit • First Lady admired for her elegance; constant articles about family The Best and the Brightest
• JFK’s advisers called “the best and the brightest” • Brother Robert Kennedy named attorney general
A New Military Policy
Defining a Military Strategy
• JFK believes must redefine nation’s nuclear strategy
• Flexible response—fight conventional wars, limited wars around the world, keep nuclear arms balanced
• JFK increases defense spending in three areas:
- strengthens conventional forces
- creates army Special Forces (Green Berets) - triples nuclear capabilities Crises over Cuba The Cuban Dilemma
• Revolutionary leader Fidel Castro declares himself communist - seizes U.S. properties; Eisenhower cuts off diplomatic relations • 10% of Cuban population goes into exile; mostly to U.S.
The Bay of Pigs
• Cuban exiles, CIA plan invasion to topple Castro
• Plans go wrong; exile forces killed, taken prisoner
• JFK pays ransom in food, medicine; mission is public embarrassment The Cuban Missile Crisis
• Nikita Khrushchev sends weapons to Cuba, including nuclear missiles • JFK warns Soviets that missile attack will trigger war on U.S.S.R. • Soviets avoid confrontation at sea; reach agreement with U.S. • America makes secret promise to remove missiles from Turkey Kennedy and Khrushchev Take the Heat

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