History 201 - Final Exam (Chapters 10, 12, and 14)

Topics: Slavery in the United States, American Civil War, Slavery Pages: 8 (2419 words) Published: July 13, 2012
CHAPTERS 10, 12, 14
1. What did Sam Patch represent?
In a market economy where skilled “arts” were being replaced by machine labor, Sam Patch’s acts were a defiant protest against the changing times.

2. What intellectual movement influenced Transcendentalism?
The Transcendentalists found inspiration for their philosophy in a variety of diverse sources such as: Vedic thought, various religions, and German idealism.

3. What did Transcendentalists believe in?
The transcendentalists desired to ground their religion and philosophy in transcendental principles: principles not based on, or falsifiable by, physical experience, but deriving from the inner spiritual or mental essence of the human.

4. What did the Shakers believe in and practice?
Convinced that the end of the world was at hand and that there was no need to perpetuate the human race, Shakers practiced celibacy. Men and women normally worked apart, ate at separate tables in silence, entered separate doorways, and had separate living quarters. Elders typically assigned tasks by gender, with women performing household chores and men laboring in the fields, but leadership of the church was split equally between men and women.

5. Who was Harriet Tubman?
A network of anti-slavery sympathizers also developed in the North to convey runaway slaves to Canada and freedom. Although not as extensive or as tightly organized as contemporaries claimed, the Underground Railroad hid fugitives and transported them northward from one station to the next. Free African Americans, who were more readily trusted by wary slaves, played a leading role in the Underground Railroad. One of its most famous conductors was Harriet Tubman, an escaped slave who repeatedly returned to the South and eventually escorted to freedom more than 200 slaves.

6. What was the Overland Trail?
The Overland Trail was a stagecoach and wagon trail in the American West during the 19th century.

7. What jobs did Chinese immigrants seek in California?
Between 1849 and 1854, some 45,000 Chinese flocked to California. Like other gold seekers, Chinese immigrants were overwhelmingly young and male, and they wanted only to accumulate savings and return home to their family.

8. What did Catharine Beecher advocate?
Like the earlier advocates of “republican motherhood,” Catharine Beecher supported women’s education and argued that women exercised power as moral guardians of the nation’s future.

9. What was Clara Barton known for?
The war (US Civil War) also allowed women to enter and eventually dominate the profession of nursing. Their service in the hospital wards reduced the hostility to women in medicine. One nurse was Clara Barton, who later founded the Red Cross.

1. What was important about the Erie Canal? How did it impact shipping costs in New York?
Canals attracted considerable investment capital, especially after the success of the Erie Canal. Built between 1919 and 1925, the canal stretched 364 miles from Albany on the Hudson River to Buffalo on Lake Erie. Its construction by the state was an act of faith, for in 1816, the United States had only 1000 miles of canals, no longer than 28 miles. But within a few years of opening, the Erie Canal paid for itself. It reduced the cost of shipping a ton of goods from Buffalo to New York City from more than 19 cents a mile to less than 3 cents. Where the canal’s busy traffics passed, settlers flocked, and towns such as Rochester and Lockport sprang up and thrived by moving goods and serving markets. The steady flow of goods eastward gave NYC the dominant position in the scramble for control of western trade.

2. Who demonstrated the commercial possibilities of steamboats in 1807? Robert Fulton in 1807 demonstrated the commercial possibilities of propelling a boat with steam when his ship, the clermont, traveled from NYC to Albany on the Hudson River. But steamboats had the greatest effect on transportation on western rivers,...
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