1. What were the achievements of Chandragupta-I?
Ans- Chandragupta-1 was third ruler of the Gupta dynasty. He succeeded his father Ghatotkacha in 320 A.D.
The Lichchhavi Marriage.
Chandragupta's marriage with the Lichchavi Princess Kumardevi was one of the significant events in the Gupta rule. The Gupta Lichchhavi relation was even publicized through a particular type of gold coins "which have the names and figures of Chandragupta-I and his Lichchhavi wife Kumardevi on the obverse and the figure of a Goddess seated on a Lion along with the legend Lichchhavi- vayah on the reverse". He strengthened his position by matrimonial alliance with the powerful family of Lichchhavis, then controlling portion of Bihar and perhaps even Nepal. The Lichchhavi Princess Kumardevi must have brought to her husband's family an enormous power and prestige". "Kumardevi brought to her husband as her dowry which secured to him a paramount position in Magadha and the neighboring countries. Chandragupta married a Lichchhavi princess of Vaisali, which gave him such influence and, what is more such powerful that he was able easily to make himself the ruler of what was ancient, Magadha. He not only beat back -the advancing tide of Kshetrapa aggression in central India, but also uprooted the power of these Saka rulers" So the marriage alliance of Chandragupta-I was valuable from a political rather than social point of view. Extent of empire:
There is a controversy among the scholars with regard to the extent of the empire of Chandragupta-I. The following verse in the Puranas gives a vague idea regarding the extent of Chandragupta's empire: "Anu Ganga Prayagam Cha Saketam
Etan Janapadan servan bhokshyantas
It is said that Chandragupta-I had conquered Bengal. He defeated the Magha kings of Kosala and Kausambi and annexed their territories to his kingdoms. So Chandragupta-I's empire included modern Bihar. Eastern Uttar Pradesh and Bengal. Gupta Era
Chandragupta also started a Era which is known as “Gupta Era”. It was started from the very first year of Chandragupta rulership. Gupta Era is important because in every script of Gupta dynasty dates were used according to Gupta Era. Chandragupta ruled for approx 15 years(320 BC to 335 BC). Chandragupta-I died in 335 A.D. and was succeeded by Samudragupta. 2. Describe the Art, Architecture, Religious condition and town planning of the Indus valley civilization.
Ans-(i) Town planning
Town planning of Indus valley civilization is of very high standards.its main points are:- (a) House-
Houses were made of sun-dried or kiln-fired mud brick. These bricks were so strong; they have stood up to thousands of years of wear. There is much variation in the size of the houses. The smallest have no more than two rooms, while the largest are so vast as to rank almost as palaces. The buildings were mostly plain, without any recession or plasters. The ground floor of a small house measured 8 x 9 m and of the large one was double its size. Doors, Windows and Stairs: Doors were possibly made of wood and were placed at the ends of the walls, not in the middle. Ordinary houses very rarely had windows in their outer walls. Possibly, perforated lattices were used as windows or ventilators at the top of the wall. Each house had an indoor and outdoor kitchen. The outdoor kitchen would be used when it was warmer (so that the oven wouldn’t heat up the house), and the indoor kitchen for use when it was colder. Each house had toilets, courtyard, bathrooms etc. The walls of the bathroom (generally a square small room) were wainscoted with bricks laid on edges so as to stand three inches above the level of the floor. It had brick pavement sloping towards one corner. Pottery rasps were used to remove thickened cuticle. Pottery pipes, each provided with a spigot so that they fitted together, were used for drainage.
(b) Drainage System-
The elaborate drainage system is a unique...
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