History 1302

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8/31/12

1870-1900
industrialization: “steam and machines replaced human muscle” iron replaces wood
1. steel replaces iron (*Andrew carnagie- steel)
take steel, bring it to the US and mass produce it
pittsburg (and burmingham) had the first major steel factories—its increased the population and money 2. 2nd most important tech.- OIL (imported/east coast)
good for lubrication, and fuel
bigger, stronger, faster machines, fuel lamps (meaning people could work at night and make more money) communications change- TRANSATLANTIC cable can communicate with N America and England invention of telephone- alex Hamilton

American telephone and telegraph (AT&T)
Automobile/combustion engine- henry ford
1903- first gas driven car
1906- model t (mid/up class)
1910- huge industry with assembly line
farming industry grows
1897- first catalogue came out
behind Bible, sears catalogue was the 2nd most read
railroad industry**- most important in industrialization
most lucrative for awhile- mega bucks
people with money invested in the industry
Cornelius Vanderbilt was the biggest name in the industry

Carnegie steel industry, paid little, it strike, clean house Jp morgan buys everything, builds largest steel company, US Steel Rockafeller- oil
Develop of capitalism, industrial revolution builds all
Why does a few control (?) so much, social Darwinism
SD- big business men claim they are just bigger & better Carnegie book (1901)- “gospel of wealth”
Rich people should give back to make the community better
The rich have a responsibility to give back

Ordeal of labor
Lack of laws and regulations on labor
Domestic and forieng workers to fill tens of thousands of jobs 25-30 mil immigrants come to work
#1. problem- pay/salary
maldistribution of wealth- men get paid more; (few peoeple control wealth) 2. Safety in the factories
3. Working conditions
no job security
workers get replaced by machines
…….(?) low skilled labor

People move to cities which affects the cities and country as a whole Rural areas/small towns to big cities***** ((on exam???))
People moved to the city for opportunity->> JOBS, on the farms there is more machinery and don’t need as many people working, better education, modern experiences and conveniences like grocery stores (better quality of food and more variety), religion, modern healthcare facilities/better hospitals, cultural diversity/different parts of town, wanting to get more involved in politics/local positions, to be more in the know, ENTERTAINMENT People were going to: NYC (the most), boston, pittsburg, Baltimore, Detroit, Chicago, st louis, Milwaukee, new haven Changes in the cities:

Transportation- horses>> horses & carts (omni bus)>> horse car line >> NEW TECHNOLOGY things that can pull on its own CABLE CARS (first in san fran then NYC which is hilly so they had to build a system that would support)>> then ELECTRIC trollys for quite awhile (first in 1888)>> subway (first in 1897//really expensive) in bigger cities to move more people faster and get them off the streets so its less crowded and less dangerous (physically cities get bigger.. cause of subway??) physically grow larger- 20 miles is avg size of city.. need efficient transportation ethnic mix: creates massive diversity>> had not really existed all over before, just some cities>> people don’t like the immigrants coming to the city so people move to SUBURBS>> new housing and neighborhoods where people don’t have to deal with things in the city but can still get there extremely easily>> most immigrants and minorities cant get out to the suburbs (immigrant ghettos??-apt buildings) immigrants>> NY pop in 1900, 81% was immigrant (some people hate, some people love), Chicago 87%, detroit and miliwaukee 84%, London 6% public space: (city planners and engineers sparks new and expands that occupation) parks.. ex: central park… Frederick...
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