History 101 Study Guide

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What are the triangular indentations used for the script of the Sumerians called?[pic] Cuneiform[pic]

Who was Gilgamesh, and which city did he rule?[pic]
Gilgamesh was the King of Uruk. His reputation inspired the Epic of Gilgamesh/5th king of Uruk(2500 BC), reigned 126 yrs/lugal “big man”(leader) wealthy young man, warrior

[pic]Which technologies were used by the earliest Western civilizations? [pic] Stone, wood, leather, and fibers[pic]/ 1st appearance of tools (bone, wood, stone) (Paleolithic “Old Stone Era”)

What conclusions may be drawn from a study of the Iceman and the materials found with him about what he did and what he was most likely to have been? [pic]He was probably a hunter or a shepherd who was accustomed to spending months each year in the high country. He pulled an arrow out of his skin, causing him to bleed out.[pic]

What common characteristic was shared by primal civilizations in Egypt, Sumer, China, and India?[pic] They sprang up on rivers.

[pic]What is the rich alluvial land between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers known as?[pic]Mesopotamia

[pic]Historians speculate that the shift from hunting and gathering to farming and herding occurred in the Western world about how many years ago? [pic]8-10,000 years[pic]

One of the earliest works of literature was the epic story of what Sumerian king?[pic]Gilgamesh[pic]

The main task of the Egyptian pharaoh was to preserve justice and good order - what was this otherwise known as?[pic]Ma'at[pic]

What best explains the fact that ancient Egypt left no written law codes? [pic]The pharaoh’s role was not to legislate and devise new rules, but to govern by traditional principles.[pic]

Why have historians begun to doubt that religious life in Sumer really did have the centrality previously attributed to it?[pic] This was an illusion created by the fact that many surviving documents come from temple granaries. It gives insight into the organization and important institution, but does not paint a complete picture of its urban life.[pic]

Which factors were most influential in drawing early settlers to Mesopotamia? [pic]alluvial plains of Euphraties and Tigrus (deep rich soil) and Mesopotamia offered land that was very reliable for harvesting (flooding annually made new water sources)[pic]

What advantages for survival and political stability did Egypt have over Sumeria? [pic]Egypt's "black land" was very fertile (Nile River). (The "Red Land” was crappy) Egypt had limited lateral expansion. It was unified.[pic]

What did the Sumerian King List, compiled by a scribe in 2100 B.C., purport to describe? [pic]A record of all the names of all the kinds who were believed to have reigned in Sumer. Period of 240,000 years. A great flood nearly wiped out humanity following the reign of the 8th king.[pic]

Who was the powerful and influential sixth King of the Babylonian Empire? [pic]Hammurabi. He devoted first 30 years of reign to wars of conquest. Introduced the Code of Hammurabi, which is first established justice[pic]

Which city did the pharaohs of the Middle Kingdom and the New Kingdom prefer as their capital?[pic] Thebes

[pic]Which peoples brought Egypt's Middle Kingdom to an end?[pic] The Semitic peoples (called Hyskos by Egyptians)

[pic]Why was the pharaoh who built the impressive temple Deir el-Bahri a truly exceptional figure?[pic] She was a Hatshepsut, who cast her stepbrother away, asserted a hereditary right to the throne, and ruled. During her rule, she conducted military trade in Africa and restored trade ties that contributed to Egyptian prosperity.

[pic]How did Amenhotep IV attempt to safeguard the absolute authority of Egyptian royal authority?
[pic]He closed down many temples, confiscated the properties, and said that Egypt would worship one God, Aten (the disk of the sun). Only he and his family had blood...
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