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(1) Resistance as well as collaboration occurred in all German-controlled areas of Europe during World War II. Give specific examples of both, and of their consequences. An example of collaboration with the Germans was the Nazi-Soviet non-aggression pact. Under this 1939 pact the two nations agreed not to attack the other if it were to be in war another country, regardless of who started it. The treaty essentially bought time for both leaders as it allowed them to get what they want without the other interfering. During the first two years of World War II while the Soviets and Nazis were collaborating with each other (before Hitler’s invasion of the SU) the territory of what is now Poland and Ukraine was invaded and split between the two dictatorships. The territory that is now Ukraine suffered under brutal Soviet repressions between 1939 and 1941, including 1.2 million Ukrainians deported to Siberia and the shooting of 15,000 Ukrainian. The Soviets and Nazis conducted massive population transfers without regard for the people involved. Hitler wanted Germans in the Reich and Stalin wanted Slavs. Between the late 1930s until the end of the war, the Soviet and Nazi regimes murdered fourteen million people. During the years that Stalin and Hitler collaborated with each other, more people were killed in Ukraine than anywhere else in the world. The allied landings in Normandy and the resumption of devastating SU offensives in the east finally convinced a number of Hitler’s generals that the war was a lost cause. As a result, resistance was seen in the German army. Field Marshall Rommel sought to persuade Hitler to sue for peace in the west in order to reinforce the eastern front. He believed that the continuation of war would only lead to total destruction of his country. Hitler refused however. Rommel was among a number of high ranking officers who were prepared to seize power by force if Hitler failed to take appropriate action to avoid the impending catastrophe. Rommel was injured in a battle against France in 1944 so was unable to play a part in the unfolding military resistance, so the leader of the resistance was Colonel Claus von Stauffenberg. He joined the already existing military conspiracy under General Friedrich Olbricht. Together they reworded an already existing plan to unseat Hitler, code name operation Valkyrie. On July 20 1944, Stauffenberg planted a bomb under a conference table in Hitler’s east Prussian headquarters bunker during a briefing session. Everything went wrong in the delayed assassination attempt. 4 were killed however Hitler only got minor injuries. That same evening Stauffenberg and his leading coconspirators were shot by a hastily assembled firing squad. The coup attempt failed not only because of the delay in the assassination but because the vast majority of high ranking officers remained loyal to the regime. To have violated their oaths of personal loyalty to Hitler would have constituted a breach of traditional standards of military honor. As a result, the conspirators received no encouragement from the allies. Another example of resistance to occupied German was the resistance to Nazism because it involved treason against one’s own country. Resistance played a significant role in a number of countries, particularly in Yugoslavia. By the middle of 1943 partisan resistance to the Germans and their allies had grown from the dimensions of a mere nuisance to those of a major factor in the general situation. In many parts of occupied Europe the enemy was suffering losses at the hands of partisans that he could ill afford. Here, guerilla fighters under Marshall Josip Tito tied down a number of German divisions throughout the war and succeeded in liberating the country before the arrival of the red army in Belgrade in late October 1994. The Partisans staged a guerrilla campaign which enjoyed gradually increased levels of success and support of the general populace, and succeeded in...
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