1. Nat Turner Revolt (1831): Slave revolt in the South led by a Virginian slave, Nat Tuner. Tuner said he was guided by God to free his people. The insurrection lasted 48 hours and 60 whites were killed. South’s bloodiest slave insurrection. Significance: fear among white southerners, increased severity of the slave codes, collapse any movement of emancipation in the South
2. Anti-slavery argument (1830s-1860s): America is God’s Promised Land, except for slavery which is sin and must go. Not only must slaves be free, but they must be incorporated into American society.
3. Abolitionists (1830-1863): Political and social movement that called for the emancipation of all slaves. This movement emerged after the failure of the American Colonization Society of 1816. William Llyod Garrison being the most famous and radical abolitionist called for immediate emancipation through his Boston newspaper, the Liberator. He attacked the slave owner as a robber of souls, a non-Christian. Uncle Tom’s Cabin (1852) became the most famous abolitionist literature.
4. William L. Garrison (1831) on slavery: “I will be as harsh as truth, and as uncompromising as justice. On this subject, I do not wish to think, or speak, or write, with moderation . . . I am in earnest—I will not equivocate—I will not excuse—I will not retreat a single inch—AND I WILL BE HEARD.”
5. Wendell Phillips (1811-1884): An abolitionist from Boston. “The Patrician as Agitator” – Hofstadter. A lawyer of Massachusetts. He joined the Anti-Slavery Society and preached against slavery. His social philosophy was for immediate emancipation and for African Americans to be fully incorporated into American culture. His own family tried to place him in an insane asylum for joining the anti-slavery movement.
6. Pro-slavery argument (1830-1863): a good society is an aristocratic one and slavery as it exists in the South is a desirable and necessary foundation for a good society.
7. John C. Calhoun (1837): “Slavery is, instead of an evil, a good—a positive good.”
8. John C. Calhoun (1782-1850): Politician from South Carolina that deeply favored slavery, he referred to slavery as a “positive good” that belong to a “good society”. “The Marx of the Master Class”- Hofstadter.
9. Manifest Destiny (1840s): Phrase coined at the height of American expansion in the 1840s to explain and justify expansion. According to Americans expansion was obvious and bound to happen. The reasons for expansion were: (1) sense of mission (part of God’s plan and land for all), (2) lebensraum (land for all), (3) Geographical predestination (destined by nature and geography to expand all N. America and parts of S. America, John Quincy Adams: “A Natural Law). Less Notable motives for expansion: (1) Commercial exploitation and (2) Land speculation.
10. Mexican War (1846-1848): “Mr. Polk’s War”. Direct result of manifest destiny and American expansion under Polk’s presidency. War broke out between the two countries over an undisputed territory area in Texas. The War ended in 1848 with the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. As a result the U.S. acquires Texas, N.M., and California. Later the acquisition of Texas becomes controversial because of the issue over slavery.
11. Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848): Ends the American-Mexican War. The treaty caused the U.S. to acquired Texas, N.M., and California. The US agrees to pay $15 Million to Mexico, and agreed to assure all claims of U.S. citizens against Mexico. “Victory for Manifest Destiny and the Democratic Party”. The Whigs opposed expansion and the Mexican War. Northern Abolitionists (minority group) opposed the War. The Majority of Americans approved of the War and expansion. Slavery became the primary issue of the new acquired territories.
12. Popular sovereignty (1850s): Political solution proposed by Stephen A. Douglas in respect to slavery in the new territories. Under...