Hist 1301 Exam Notes

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Historical Perspective
There are many historical Perspectives (views and opinions) to consider when looking at history, such as, age, class and social status, literacy, race, sex and gender, birth place, whether their geography is rural or urban, media, housing and household makeup, movement (ie. travel or not), degree of independence, type of work performed, the daily life and activities, religion and spirituality

Social History
Social history is the Study of ordinary people in their everyday lives.

Primary and secondary documents
There are many types of historical perspectives to consider when looking at primary documents which are first-hand sources, and Secondary Sources which are Second hand sources. Primary sources: sources that are witnessed or lived through during that specific time. (ie. newspaper, letters, diary, autobiography, memoirs, art, mesic, architecture, materials people used, photographs, government and legal documents, and oral histories.) Secondary Sources: Sources that pertain to Second hand (outside looking in) (ie. biography, magazines, movies, textbooks, and novels)

Gender
Gender is different from sex: biological! Gender refers to roles which are cultural, and vary across cultures. Gender has specific understanding and practices.

Race
Race is socially and culturally constructed, and may be considered fluid

Class and economic status
Class refers to economic status, resources available to the population, it also refers to the privileges each class has, or the lack thereof.

Before the Common Era (BCE) and
Before the Common Era (BCE) refers to the common world calander which was established in the year 775. BCE was previously known as BC (Before Christ)

Common Era (CE)
Common Era (CE) refers to the common world calendar which was previously known as AD which many believed to be known as After Death, however, it really means Anno Domini

Bering Land Bridge
The Bering Land Bridge causes scholars to have conflicting origin theories. The land bridge – Beringia American origins.

Taino the way we lived

Maya pg 8-9
In Mesoamerica, the Maya controlled a domain stretching from the lowlands of the Yucatan peninsula to the highlands of what is now known as southern Mexico. In developments of their rich empire, the worship of the sun was central to their religious beliefs. Mayan culture flourished between 300 and 900. They developed a calendar with 52 year cycles made up of 20 day months. The Maya built huge stone temples and held ritual bloodletting ceremonies to appease their gods.

Teotihuacan
Teotihuacan Society was very advanced and complex. The largest city had a population of 100,000 people buy was destroyed 700-800 years later. The people who constructed the metropolis of Teotihuacan in the Mexican highlands remain an enigma. This city was linked to the shore by causeways.

Aztecs/Mexica
Aztecs/Mexica had a very established empire. The Society was near Lake Texcoco and was very prosperous from the resourcefulness of the natural resources that were available. The city Tenochtitlan, which will eventually become Mexico City, was very large with a population of about 200,000 people. The Tenochititlan City had a very strategic location and because of this, it became a tactical military point. The Aztecs/Mexica were known for The book of Tonatiuh, which by some people is viewed as a calendar of events, but is truly a book of history. They waged many wars but their goal was not to kill, but to gain more territory

Algonquians pg 37
Joined by Champlain in 1609, the Algonquians and Huron Indians raided the Iroquois in what is now known as upstate NY. Champlain with a gun killed several war chiefs. For the French, their victory sealed good relations with the Algonquians and ensured the survival of Quebec and spurred unprecedented commerce. Within 15 years Native Americans were trading 12000-15,000 beaver pelts annually via the...
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