His 103: the Asian World Notes

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1) Nationalism, socialism, and religion have all played a major role in anti-colonial struggles and post-colonial constructions in India and Southeast Asia. Which of these three ideologies do you think was most effective for colonized peoples and why?

I. Nationalism was most effective for the colonized peoples of India and South East Asia a. Both socialism and Nationalism worked together to fight against imperial rule. Nationalism brought the people of India and Southeast Asia together while Socialism went against Western ideals. b. Socialism was more effective in South East Asia, it went fully against Western colonists beliefs of capitalism and democracy. Nationalism was most effective in India to fight against the British Imperial rule. c. Nationalism was the most effective ideology used in anti-colonial and post-colonial constructions and socialism was used as a secondary tool in some cases. II. South East Asians in the Philippines begin to move around and realize that colonialism is ubiquitous d. It’s the same all across the country and different ethnicities experience the same colonialism e. They begin to come together and talk about it through writing and news print and there is a communal agreement that colonialism is not a good thing f. As the natives become more educated they travel to Europe to get a better education i. They realize that Europe is not as great as the colonizers said it was, and they didn’t understand why they needed to be like the Europeans ii. This gave the natives a sense of nationalism because they wanted to go home where they could be with their people in the country they love. III. Later, in World War II, the Japanese come into South East Asia and destroy the Europeans, this gets rid of colonialism forever in South East Asia g. The Japanese essentially take over where the Europeans left off and impose colonialism on the Philippines just the same. iii. Filipinos push Japanese out with the help of the Americans but they want their own independence iv. They also find a new tool to fight colonialism, and that tool is class 1. They begin to turn to Socialism to keep colonists out IV. Socialism and Nationalism combine into one force

h. In 1941 Ho Chi Minh creates the Viet Minh which is a communist nationalist group v. “many educated South East Asians thought that socialism explained their own experience, pointing to the dominance of Western capital in the colonies” (Heidhues, 126) i. The main goal is an independent Vietnam

vi. They declare an independent communist run country j. Socialism was the ultimate tool against Western imperialism because it went against all their ideals. They wanted to get rid of the imperialist force on Vietnamese so Ho Chi Minh used socialism to do so with nationalist ideals supporting it. k. Eventually the French move back into Vietnam to pick up their colonialism vii. French claim to be fighting was against communism viii. Minh fall to using guerilla warfare to fight the French and the war as an extreme anti-colonial tone. 2. The Vietnamese realize that if they are going to win the war they have to plan for the future. Use socialism as a tool a. New goal is to educate the masses, every citizen should learn how to read b. Minh indoctrinates Marxist thought, anti-colonialism, and nationalist thoughts into every citizen i. This is how they used socialism and even some nationalism to fight the French and their colonial institutions. The Vietnamese’s ability to round up all their citizens to fight for the name of their country is what eventually allows them to win the war. The Vietnamese were able to fight for something they all wanted as a country, they fought under nationalism and used socialism as a tool to rebel against western...
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