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Hedgi ng
1. Look at the following sentences. Write whether each sentence is non-committal (NC) or strongly states its point (S).

a 'context determines to a large extent the meanings of any
non-verbal behaviours'. (p. 137)
b 'We learn them largely from observing others.' (p. 137)
c 'Albert Mehrabian (1976) argues that the total impact of a message is a function of the following formula.' (p. 137)
d 'Regulators are clearly culture-bound and are not universal.' (p. 143)
e "When these adaptors occur inprivate, they occur in their
entirety." (p. 143)

'Generally, researchers report, adaptors tend to be signs of negative feelings.' (p. 143)

g 'Paul Ekman et al (1972) claim that facial messages
communicate at least the following eight emotions.' (p. 147) h 'Dale Leathers (1990) has proposed that in addition to these eight, facial movements may also communicate
bewilderment and determination. (p. 147)

'It appears from cross-cultural research that facial
expressions have a somewhat universal nature'. (p. 148)


'Studies such as these do point to a universality amoung
facial gestures.' (p. 148)

k 'Mark Knapp (1978), as well as other researchers, notes four major functions of eye communication.' (p. 153)

'In studies conducted on gazing behaviour and summarized
by Knapp and Hall (1992), it has ben found that listeners
gaze at speakers more than speakers gaze at listeners.' (p.

m 'Pupil size is also indicative of one's interest and level of emotional arousal.' (p. 154)
n 'Nonverbal theorist Dale Leathers (1990) reports on research demonstrating that, compared to verbal cues, non-verbal
cues are four times as effective in their impact on
interpersonal impressions.' (p. 137)

2. Identify the hedging expressions in the follow ing sentences.

1. There is no difficulty in explaining how a structure
such as an eye or a feather contributes to survival
and reproduction; the difficulty is in thinking of a
series of steps by which it could have arisen.
2. For example, it is possible to see that in January this
person weighed 60.8 kg for eight days,
3. For example, it may be necessary for the spider to
leave the branch on which it is standing, climb up the
stem, and walk out along another branch.
4. Escherichia coli , when found in conjunction with
urethritis, often indicate infection higher in the urogenital tract. 5. There is experimental work to show that a week or
ten days may not be long enough and a fortnight to
three weeks is probably the best theoretical period.
6. Conceivably, different forms, changing at different
rates and showing contrasting combinations of
characteristics, were present in different areas.
7. One possibility is that generalized latent inhibition is
likely to be weaker than that produced by preexposure to the CS itself and thus is more likely to be susceptible to the effect of the long interval.
8. For our present purpose, it is useful to distinguish two
kinds of chemical reaction, according to whether the
reaction releases energy or requires it.
9. It appears to establish three categories: the first
contains wordings generally agreed to be
acceptable, the second wordings which appear to
have been at some time problematic but are now
acceptable, and the third wordings which remain

3. Following are sentences reporting facts. Some are non-committal and some are stated more strongly.
Restate each sentence, changing the wording so that a noncommittal sentence becomes strong and a strongly-stated
sentence becomes non-committal.
a 'there do seem to be some reliable indications of
sex differences on specific intellectual skills.' (p.

b 'Some studies of cognitive abilities seem to
demonstrate that we should ask about specific
intellectual skills.' (p. 118)

c 'there is some evidence that intelligence tends to run
ain families and may be due in part to innate,
inherited factors.' (p. 123)

d 'There are...
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