The Modern Theory of international trade has been advocated by Bertil Ohlin. Ohlin has drawn his ideas from Heckscher's General Equilibrium Analysis. Hence it is also known as Heckscher Ohlin (HO) Model / Theorem / Theory. [pic]
According to Bertil Ohlin, trade arises due to the differences in the relative prices of different goods in different countries. The difference in commodity price is due to the difference in factor prices (i.e. costs). Factor prices differ because endowments (i.e. capital and labour) differ in countries. Hence, trade occurs because different countries have different factor endowments. The Heckscher Ohlin theorem states that countries which are rich in labour will export labour intensive goods and countries which are rich in capital will export capital intensive goods.
[pic]Assumptions of Heckscher Ohlin's H-O Theory ↓
Heckscher-Ohlin's theory explains the modern approach to international trade on the basis of following assumptions :- 1. There are two countries involved.
2. Each country has two factors (labour and capital).
3. Each country produce two commodities or goods (labour intensive and capital intensive). 4. There is perfect competition in both commodity and factor markets. 5. All production functions are homogeneous of the first degree i.e. production function is subject to constant returns to scale. 6. Factors are freely mobile within a country but immobile between countries. 7. Two countries differ in factor supply.
8. Each commodity differs in factor intensity.
9. The production function remains the same in different countries for the same commodity. For e.g. If commodity A requires more capital in one country then same is the case in other country. 10. There is full employment of resources in both countries and demand are identical in both countries. 11. Trade is free i.e. there are no trade restrictions in the form of tariffs or...