Health promotion – general philosophy that has at its core the idea that good health, or wellness, is a personal and collective achievement. -WHO defined health promotion as “the process of enabling people to increase control over, and to improve, their health” - Epp report stressed need to view health from health promotion perspective - for individual, health promotion involves developing program of good health habits early in life and carrying them through adulthood and old age - for medical practitioner, health promotion involves teaching people how to best achieve this healthy lifestyle and help people at risk learn behaviors to offset risks * for psychologist, health promotion involves development of interventions to help people practice healthy behaviors and change poor ones. - mass media can contribute to health promotion by educating people about health risks by certain behaviors e.g. smoking, excessive alcohol use - lalonde report- suggested need for health promotion approach to keep Canadians healthy.
WHY ARE HEALTH BEHAVIORS IMPORTANT?
Role of Behavioral Factors in Disease and Disorder
- prevalence of acute infectious disorders, TB, influenza, measles, poliomyletis declines due to treatment innovations and changes in public health - been an increase in “preventable” disorders including ling cancer, CVD, alcohol - successful modification of health behaviors will have several beneficial effects
1) will reduce deaths due to lifestyle related disease
2) may delay time of death, increasing life expectancy
3) may expand number of years person experiences complications free of chronic diseases
4) decreases health spending
What are health behaviors?
- Health behaviors are behaviors undertaken to enhance or maintain health - health habit – health related behavior that is firmly established and often performed automatically, without awareness
- habits develop in childhood and stabilize by 11 or 12
seven important good health habits:
- sleeping seven to eight hours a night
- not smoking
- eating breakfast each day
- having no more than one or two alcoholic drinks each day
- getting regular exercise
- not eating between meals
- being no more than 10 percent overweight
- researchers found the more good health habits people practiced, fewer illnesses they had, the better they felt, the less disabled they had been. - mortality rates dramatically lower for people practicing the 7 habits
-instilling good health habits and changing poor ones primary prevention - two general strategies of primary prevention:
- employ behavior change methods to alter problematic health behaviors (most common strategy) - keep people from developing poor health habits in the first place
What Factors Influence the Practice of Health Behaviors?
- individual health behaviors influenced by social, cultural, and physical environments in which they occur Socio-economic factors
- health differs according to demographic factors
- younger, more affluent, better educated, under low levels of stress, high social support practice better health habits than people under high levels of stress and fewer resources
Health behaviors vary with age and type of health behavior
- health habits good in childhood
- deteriorate in adolescence and young adulthood
- improves again among retired adults under 73
- deteriorate among adults 73 and older
Significant gender differences in practice of health behaviors -school aged girls eat more nutritious foods than boys, girls also engage in unhealthy dieting and meal skipping, girls less likely to engage in sports Values
- influence practice of healthy habits
- exercise undesirable in some cultures for woman
- perception of one’s health is under personal control determines health habits - Health locus of control scale measures degree to which people perceive to be...