Understand about health, illness, and wellness: (CHP 17 p. 295 & PP Health Promotion and Disease Prevention) Health - is the state of complete physical, mental (emotional), and social (including spiritual) well-being, not merely the absence of disease. Health is holistic in nature; it’s the full expression of a person’s physical, emotional, social and spiritual potential. It’s a dynamic state in which the person continuously adapts to changes in the internal and external environments in order to maintain a sense of wellbeing. Health is a highly individual perception. Illness - is an event that manifests itself through observable/felt changes in the body. Illness is the state in which the physical, emotional, social, intellectual or spiritual functioning is diminished or impaired compared with previous experience. It is NOT synonymous with disease and may or may not be related to disease. Illness is highly subjective. Wellness - is the state of being healthy in both body and mind as the result of deliberate effort. Wellness is the state of well-being. It is an approach to healthcare that emphasizes preventing illness and prolonging life as opposed to emphasizing treating diseases. Anspaugh et al propose 7 components of wellness: 1) Physical
6) Occupational and
Well-being/Wellness is a subjective perception of vitality and feeling well which can be described objectively, experienced, and measured and can be plotted on a continuum. Dunn’s concept of high level wellness theorizes that wellness is the degree of illness/health modified by the environment. It says that it is an integrated method of functioning that is oriented towards maximizing the potential of which the person is capable. It requires that the individual maintain a continuum of balance and purposeful direction within the environment where he is functioning. The patient’s perception of health, wellness and illness must be considered by the nurse in order to provide individualized, quality care. Lifestyle factors that influence health: (PP Health Promotion and Disease Prevention) Internal and external factors influence health status.
Internal factors include Age, Genetics, Physiologic, Lifestyle, Health habits (smoking, drugs, alcohol, eating habits, exercise and stress). External factors include: Environment (radiation, air pollution, H20 and sun exposure), Safety (seatbelts, riding on motorcycle), and Standard of living (less educated the poorer the health). How to take a patient’s temperature using different routes: (Lab & Kozier PP. 532-537) There are a number of body sites for measuring body temperature. The most common are oral, rectal, axillary, tympanic and temporal artery. Normal adult temperature is 37 degree C and 98.6 degree F. In older adults ( > 70), temp is usually 36 degrees C or 96.8 degrees F. Newborns- 1 yr old are usually 98.2 degree F and 36.8 degree C. Oral: Most common route. Place thermometer underneath the tongue on either side of the frenulum. Do NOT take in someone with mouth lesions or if patient has had oral surgery. Be sure to ask if patient has had anything cold/hot to drink in last 30 minutes. Rectal: Most accurate route. Place Pt. in lateral or Sim’s position. Apply gloves and instruct patient to take a slow deep breath during insertion. Insert 1.5 inches in adults. Do NOT take in Pt that has had rectal surgery, has lower GI problems, is immuno-suppressed, has a clotting disorder or Pt that has hemorrhoids. In some agencies taking rectal temps is contraindicated in patients who have had an MI. It is believed that this can stimulate the Vagus nerve which can cause myocardial damage. Tympanic: Temps measured in this site are usually 1.1-1.5 degrees higher than oral. These are non invasive and quick. To measure temp, pull pinna slightly upward and back( adults) and point the probe slightly anteriorly, toward eardrum. Insert the probe...