TYPES OF LEARNING THEORIES
1. Behavioral Theory
2. Cognitive Theory-Teaching forone to learn
3. Social Learning Theory-Role Modeling
Theory-came from the Greek word“Theoria” which meansbeholding a spectacle orspeculation. * An explanation of a phenomena or an abstract generalization that explains the relationship of a phenomena. * Provides professional autonomy and power by guiding and directing the practice education, and research of the profession.
Model-a symbolic representation of apresentation.
Learning Theories - Its core is composed of concepts and propositions that explain why people learn and predict under what circumstance they willlearn.
I. Stimulus-Response or Behavioral
* Learning by association between stimuli and response (central focus) * Learning has taken place if there is a change in behavior.
1. Ivan P. Pavlov
* Classical Conditioning or Respondent Conditioning
* A Russian physiologist who worked on digestive secretions (control of salivary & gastric control)
TYPES OF STIMULUS
2. Edward L. Thorndike
* Trial and Error/ Learning Connectionism Theory
* Learning is through stimulus-response associations from trial and error. * Cats in a puzzle box with food outside – the length of time needed to escape. * Has two laws:
* Law of Effect -recurrence of aresponse isdependent on itsconsequence. * Law of Exercise-stimulus responseassociations are strengthened via repetition 3. B.F. Skinner
* Operant or Instrumental Conditioning
* Reinforcement or Reward
* Acquisition of a new behavior through manipulation of rewards & consequence/punishments. * Useful in treatment strategies for mentally handicapped and mentally ill. ANTECEDENCE| BEHAVIOR| CONSEQUNCE|
* Prompting * Modeling * Feedback * Goals| * Desired * Undesired| * Positive reinforcement * Negative Reinforcement * Punishment * Extinction * Escape or Avoidance|
Extinction-reduction of attention toextinct or reduce hyperactivity ---| Something to Give (+)| Something to Take (-)| Increase an action to be repeated (↑ Good Behavior)| POSITIVEReinforcement| NEGATIVEReinforcement| Decrease an action to be repeated (↓ Bad Behavior)| POSITIVE Punishment| NEGATIVE Punishment|
4 Principles of Reinforcement
a. Positive Reinforcement
* May be verbal or nonverbal
* Acts as a reward to increase the chance that a GOOD behavior will be repeated
b. Negative Reinforcement
* May be verbal or non-verbal but it must not be too personal * It involves reduction of pleasure to increase the chances that an act will be repeated.
* May be verbal or non-verbal
d. Omission of Reinforcement
2 Types of Reinforcement
a. Primary reinforcement
* Food, drink, basic needs
b. Secondary reinforcement
* Money and prestige
Shaping-incorporation of novel behaviorwhich are not part of theanimal’s natural response intoits behavioral repertoire; usedin training animals.
4. John Watson
* Behaviorism Theory
* He coined the word “Behaviorism” in 1913
* Behaviorism assumes that behavior is observable and can be correlated with other observable events; this, there are events that precede and follow behavior. * Its goal to explain the relationship between antecedent conditions (stimuli), behavior (response), and consequences (rewards, punishments, or neutral effects).
5. Edwin Ray Guthrie
* Contiguity Theory
* A philosopher, mathematician, and later on became a behavior...