Hawaiian History

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  • Topic: Hawaii, Liliuokalani, Kingdom of Hawaii
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  • Published : February 28, 2013
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Study Guide 2 (1770’s-1890’s)

Western Powers in the Pacific
European expansion:
* Empire building led to expansion of territories (Portugal, Spain, Netherlands) all for spice trade, development of “blue water” technology, Columbus (1492), terra austeralis. * Diffusionism: Polynesian people were the degenerated descendants of Europeans. * Noble savage: child like innocence, lived with ease in a tropic eden and sexual bliss, concerns over moral & industrial capacity * Semitic Polynesian: Polynesians as the descendants of one of the 12 tribes of Israel. * Aryan or Caucasian Polynesian: intellectual colonialism of Indigenous people and their lands. * Vasco Nunez de Balboa (1513)

American Expansion
* Hawaii provided America raw materials to fuel production, and land for a growing population. Captain Cook
* Came Hawaii in search of Northwest passage
* Arrived 1778 and named Hawaii Sandwich Isles
* Died February 14, 1779 in Kealakekua bay Hawaii
The Hawaiian Kingdom
Kamehameha Domain
* Kamehameha I (KI) is from Hawai’i and is the first King of Hawai’i. * In 1795 the battle of Nu’uanu was fought for the dominance over the archipelago. * King Kaumuali’i was Mö’i of Kauai and his kingdom was conquered by KI with 1810 treaty. * KI dies may 8, 1819, significant for missionaries because they came in march 20, 1820 when war had cooled down. * Ka’ahumanu was Kamehameha’s favorite wife of 20+, however Keöpüolani was Kamehameha’s highest ranking wife and mother of Liholiho (KII) ‘Ainoa

* Liholiho (KII) became Mö’ï after KI’s death
* Kuhina nui is a girl chief.
Christianity
* Missionaries arrived march 20, 1820
* Viewed Hawaiian people as foolish, uneducated.
* They respected the monarch but yet looked down upon it
* God became number one on chart instead of the King
* Schools drew Hawaiian crowd to missionary instruction
* Hiram Bingham-

‘Ölelo Hawai’i
* “I ka ‘ölelo no ke ola, I ka ‘ölelo no ka make” (In language there is life, in language there is death Cultural Bomb
* Cultural bomb allows indigenous people to annihilate belief, names, languages, environment, heritage, and makes one see their past as one wasteland of non-achievement * Language is one’s pathway to enlightenment, entry to one’s past. And also the present Language History

* Orature: the spoken language
* Orature promotes expression, memory, imagination
* ‘Ölelo timeline
* 1820- first protestant missionaries arrive
* 1822- Pï’äpä developed (Hawaiian alphabet)
* 1853- “most literate nation in the world” almost ¾ of the population able to read and write * 1896- ‘Ölelo Hawaii banned (no kula Hawai’i, HAYN teachers fired, HAYN children punished, Parents reprimanded * 1902- 0 HAYN; 203 Eng speaking schools

* Richard Armstrong- public instruction for the Kingdom, 1848-1860 * Hawaiians didn’t go to school cuz parents didn’t want them too so Hawaiians became less educated. (English is superior to Hawaiian school because English is the business language) Pidgin

* HPE (Hawaiian Pidgin Language)
* HCE (Hawaiian creel English)
* Pidgin was language developed for all cultures to understand in time of plantations and port towns. * Hawaii BOE doesn’t recognize HPE/HCE
Re-recognition of ‘Ölelo Hawai’i
* 1978 constitutional convention: 3 Hawaiian Amendments
* “English and Hawaiian shall be the official languages of Hawaii” * “State shall provide for a Hawaiian education program consisting of language, culture, and history in public schools.” * State reaffirms and shall protect all rights, customarily and traditionally exercised for subsistence, cultural, and religious purposes.” * Pünana Leo: Hawaiian immersion school (1984)

* Papahana Kula kaiapuni: Hawaiian immersion high school (1987) Mea No’eau
* Fine art is for display purposes, Mea No’eau is for purpose (mana through use) *...
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