Grade 8 Socials Notes

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Social Studies 8
Final Exam Notes

Geography:
Scales
The scale of a map can be represented in 3 ways:
1.Direct Statement
-Ex. 1cm represents 1 km
-1cm:1km
-1cm = 1 km  WRONG
Does not “equal” 1 km, represents it.
2.Linear Scale
-A line is marked off in units that correspond to definite distances on the ground. Ex-

200m 100m 0m 100 m 200m 3.Representative Fraction (RF)
-The ratio of unit distance on the map, to the number of similar units on the ground. •Ex. 1:25000

Scale Conversions:
Direct Statement  Representative Fraction
-Move decimal 5 spaces to the right
Representative Fraction  Direct Statement
-Move decimal 5 spaces to the left

Direction

North- 0 degreesNorth/East- 45 degrees
East- 90 degreesSouth/East- 135 degrees
South- 180 degreesSouth/West- 225 degrees
West- 270 degreesNorth/West- 315 degrees

Position and Location
1.Latitude
-Angular distance north or south of the equator
Aka. “Parallels” of Latitude  2.Longitude
-Angular distance west or east of the Prime Meridian
Aka. “Meridians” of Longitude 

3.Important lines of Latitude and Longitude
-Arctic Circle
66.5° N Latitude
-Tropic of Cancer
23.5° N latitude; June 21st, the sun is directly perpendicular to the earth’s surface at 23.5° north -Equator
0° latitude
-Tropic of Capricorn
23.5° S latitude; December 21st sun is perpendicular to the Tropic of Capricorn. -Antarctic Circle
66.5° S latitude
-International Date Line
About 180° longitude
-Prime Meridian
0° longitude

Labeling Maps
1.How to label maps
-Should have title and key
- Locations should be as accurate as possible
-Human features : names should be parallel to the base of the map when possible, cities should be represented with a dot -Rivers: should be printed on the line representing the river and the direction the river flows -Mountains: the name should follow the direction of the mountains when possible -Lakes and Water Bodies: parallel to the bas when possible

-Size: names of equal importance are of equal size.
2.Countries, Provinces, Cities, etc.
3.Oceans, Seas, Rivers, etc.
-Color maps! Light shades make it easier to read, water should be blue, and shade borders. Land Forms
1.Different types of land forms
-Bay
A body of water that is partly enclosed by land
-Canyon
A deep valley with very steep sides
-Cape
A pointed piece of land that sticks out into a sea, ocean, lake or river

-Channel
A body of water that connects two larger bodies of water -Continent
The land mass on Earth is divided into continents. The seven continents are Africa, Antarctica, Asia, Australia, Europe, North America, and South America -Cove
A small, horseshoe-shaped body of water along the coast; the water is surrounded by land formed of soft rock -Delta
A low, watery land formed at the mouth of a river, often shaped like a triangle -Equator
An imaginary circle around the earth, halfway between the north and south poles -Estuary
Where a river meets the sea or ocean
Fjord
A long, narrow sea inlet that is bordered by steep cliffs -Geyser
A natural hot spring that occasionally sprays water and steam above the ground -Gulf
Part of the ocean (or sea) that is partly surrounded by land (usually larger than a bay) -Island
A piece of land that is surrounded by water
-Isthmus
A narrow strip of land connecting two larger landmasses, has water on two sides -Lake
A large body of water surrounded by land on all sides
-Ocean
A large body of salt water that surrounds a continent
-Peninsula
A body of land that is surrounded by water on three sides -Plain
Flat lands that have only small changes in elevation
-Plateau
A large, flat area of land that is higher than the surrounding land -Pond...
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