Grade 12 Biology Exam

Topics: Protein, DNA, Cell Pages: 5 (861 words) Published: June 8, 2014
Biology 4U Exam Review

Intro to Biochemistry

Types of bonding:

Ionic
Results from the attraction between two oppositely charged atoms or molecules. They must lose or gain electrons to become charged. For example, a sodium molecule and a chlorine molecule form an ionic bond to create sodium chloride (NaCl) Covalent

Results from the sharing of one or more pairs of valence electrons to create a stable molecule. For example, the covalent bonding of hydrogen ions creates hydrogen gas (H2) or the covalent bonding between carbon and hydrogen can create variations of a hydrocarbon like methane (CH4) Hydrogen

The attractive force between a partially positively charged hydrogen atom and a partially negative charged atom (like oxygen or nitrogen) in another molecule. For example, in water molecules, there are many hydrogen bonds that exist which is why water has it's unique qualities like high surface tension (refer to pg. 15 in txtbook if confused) Hydrophobic

Functional Groups:

Functional Group
Name of Compound
Formula
Hydroxyl
Alcohols
R – OH
Carbonyl
Aldehydes
Keytones
R – C=O (end)
R – C=O (middle)
Carboxyl
Carboxylic acids
R – C=O
\ OH
Amino
Amines

Amides
R – N – H
\ H

R – C=O
\NH2
Sulfhydryl
Thiols
R – SH
Phosphate
Organic phosphates

(double bond between O and P)
O
R – O – P – O
O
Alkanes
(single carbon bonds)
R – C – C – H
Alkenes
(double carbon bonds)
R – C = C – H
Alkynes
(triple carbon bonds)
R – C = C - H
Ester linkage
(double bond between O and C)
O
R – C – O – R
Ether linkage

R – O – R

Biochemical Molecules (Macromolecules)
Carbohydrates
composed mostly of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen (1:2:1)
organic molecule having two or more hydroxyl groups along with a carbonyl group sugars may be aldoses or keytoses (depending on the location of the carbonyl group) monomer: monosaccarides – simple sugars (glucose, fructose, galactose) 5 or 6 sided chain

disaccarides – two monosaccarides bonded by a glycosidic linkage (sucrose, maltose, lactose)
polysaccarides – a chain of monosaccharides with many subunites joined by glycosidic linkages (starches, cellulose, glycogen) three major functions: 1) important source of energy (quick, body's first source) 2) means by which chemical energy can be stored (short term) 3) serve as structural materials (chitin in insects)

Lipids
non-polar and so therefore insoluble in water
five major functions: 1) major component of all cell membranes (phospholipids) 2) long term energy storage
3) insulation
4) cushioning for internal organs
5) making of steroid hormones
types of lipids: 1) triglycerides – glycerol and fatty acid chains 2) phospholipids – glycerol, fatty acids, phosphate group 3) waxes – long chains of many carbon atoms and monohydroxy alcohol 4) steroids (cholesterol) – three fused cyclohexane rings, and one cyclopentane ring
triglycerides are fat molecules composed of one glycerol and three fatty acid chains can be saturated (completely covered with single bonded hydrogen) eg., animal fats, lard or unsaturated (one or more double bonds of hydrogen to create “kinks”) eg., plant fats, oil Proteins

contain N, C, H, and O with similar basic structures
monomer: made up of long chains of amino acids (20 a.a.)
peptide chains: two or more a.a combined at carboxyl end to amino end via dehydration synthesis one end called c-terminus
other end called n-terminus

there are a variety of functions (ST. HER CD'S): 1) Structural 4) Enzymes 7) Defensive 2) Transport 5) Regulation 8) Storage 3) Hormones 6) Contractile There are four levels of protein folding: 1 (primary), 2 (secondary), 3 (tertiary), 4 (quaternary) refer to your notes on page 30 for more detail...
Continue Reading

Please join StudyMode to read the full document

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

  • grade 12 AP biology exam notes Essay
  • Biology 12 Essay
  • Unit One Grade 12 Biology Study Notes Essay
  • Essay about Biology Grade 12
  • Grade 12 Chemistry Exam Prep Research Paper
  • Grade 11 Biology Exam Review Essay
  • Grade 12 Biology Notes Essay
  • Biology Essay

Become a StudyMode Member

Sign Up - It's Free