Grade 11 Chemistry - the Periodic Table Notes

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Chapter 11 - The Periodic Table

11-1 Organizing by Properties

Dmitri Mendeleev (1834-1907) russian, published his element classification in 1869 - increasing molar mass - matching similar properties Mendeleev's periodic table included gaps - yet to be discovered - predicted the properties of missing elements repetition in properties of the elements was a fundamental pattern in nature - periodicity of the elements modern periodic law: the properties of the elements recur periodically when the elemetns are arranged in increasing order by their atomic numbers

11-2 The Periodic Table Today

(Table 11-1 pg 307)
helium, neon and argon do not form hydrides or fluorides - can be grouped the ratio to H and ratio to F are in groups with sequence 1, 2, 3, 4, 3, 2, 1 elements with same ratios mean they react similarly to H and F periodic table: vertical groups/chemical families

groups 1, 2, 12, 14, 15, 16, 17 and 18 known as the representative elements elements in groups all react similarly to the same situations

group 1: alkali metals (excluding H) - these metals react with water to form an alkali/basic solution group 2: alkaline earth metals
group 17: halogens
group 18: noble gases - nonreactive under most conditions
group 3-12: transition metals - once believed that they behaved in a manner that is intermediate between the active metals and non metals

horizontal rows: periods
rare earth metals replaced with term inner transition metals or lanthanides series (57 to 71) actinide series (part of the inner trans. metals): elements 89 to 103

Patterns in Electrons Structure

11-3 The Periodic Table and Electron Configuration

Li: 1s2 2s1 / K: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s1 / Ar: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 / Kr 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 (electron configurations) electrons in the outermost s and p orbitals are referred to as valence electrons each group is characterized by a similar outermost energy lvl configuration, that's why they react similarly...
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