Grade 11 Biology Study Notes

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SBI3U1-04 Final Exam Study Notes
Unit 1: Diversity of Living Things

1.1 Importance of Biodiversity
Spotlight on Honeybees
Very important, pollinate flowers allowing plants to reproduce Play vital role in food chain, if they die, all organisms that rely on them will die as well Dying because of pesticides, parasitic Varroa mite (infects beehives and sucks of bees’ blood), the Israeli acute paralysis virus (immobilizes and kill bees) No genetic diversity = Less resistant to parasites

Biodiversity: variety of life in the world, product of millions of years of evolution, adaptation

Genetic Diversity: sum of all the different forms of genes present in species Species: population whose members can breed freely in nature and produce fertile offspring Hereditary characteristics make an organism unique and ensures survival of species, by allowing adaptation Farmers who grow genetically similar crops to use the same equipment, called monocultures, have no biodiversity, make them susceptible to diseases and pathogens (fungi rust)

Species Diversity: variety of species and relative abundance of the species in an area The more species, the more complicated and robust, allowing survival in environmental changes Each species has its own contributions

Species
Description
Sulfolobus archaea
Live in hot springs, mini organisms
Sea wasp/Box jellyfish
Live in tropical oceans
Giant sequoia trees
Grow in North America, Europe, Australia and New Zealand
Blue green algae
Live everywhere, ocean, soil, bare rock, hair of sloth
Ants
Everywhere except for Antarctica
Sea turtles
Hatch on beaches, live in oceans
Blue Jay
North America, Ontario

Ecosystem Diversity: diverse range of habitats, various organisms that live in the habitats, relationships that connect them Not limited to large habitats, even soil has a huge biodiversity Some animals are “walking ecosystems” and have a symbiotic relationship with micro-organisms All parts of ecosystem are interconnected, any changes to a single part will have some effect on the entire ecosystem and impact the biodiversity of that region

Valuing Biodiversity
Ecosystems with biodiversity …
Healthier organisms, more resilient to changes in environment Affect on humans …
Important for humans, provides materials for medicine, food, agriculture

Also maintains life-sustaining processes:
Pollination between plants, crops, birds, bats, insects
Micro-organisms make nutrients available and break down toxic substances in water and soil Ecosystems cycle carbon, nitrogen and oxygen
Cleaner air, purified water, controlled erosion, prevention of floods, and regulated climate

Keystone Species: species that have a disproportionately large effect on the ecosystems in which they live, such as the honeybee

1.2 Science of Classification
Common organisms often consist of several species

Malaria
Disease that affects mosquitoes and humans, caused by microscopic parasite: Plasmodium  transmits malaria through bites Closer inspection of pesticides led to discovery of difference in physiology among the mosquitoes caused insecticides to not be effective Malaria risk areas are around equator, global warming will impact

Process of Malaria
1. Infected mosquito bites human, Plasmodia in mosquito’s saliva enters bloodstream 2. Plasmodia invade liver and RBCs and multiply
3. RBCs rupture, releasing plasmodia (asexual reproduction of plasmodia in blood) 4. Sexual reproduction in the mosquito’s intestine produces plasmodia which migrate to salivary glands

Symptoms
Headache, shaking, chills, fever, coma,
Falciparum malaria more severe  attack all ages of RBCs causing hemolytic anemia, the destruction of greater proportion of blood cells, block blood vessels to vital organs

Treatment
Antimalarial drugs, blood transfusions

Identifying Organisms
Use of universal scientific name to known species to avoid confusion

The names often reveal:...
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