Government Final Notes

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Government 2301 Final Review
1. Define liberal, moderate, conservative.
- Liberals: one who favors governmental involvement in the economy and in the provision of social services and who takes an activist role in protecting the rights of women, the elderly, minorities, and the environment. - Conservatives: one who believes that a government is best that governs least and that big government should not infringe on individual, personal, and economic rights. - Moderate: A person who takes a relative centrist or middle-of-the-road view on most political issues. 2. Define political ideology.

- The coherent set of values and beliefs about the purpose and scope of government held by groups and individuals. 3. What is the difference between federalist and Anti-federalist? - Federalist were those who favored a stronger national government and supported the proposed U.S. Constitution; later became the first U.S. political party. - Anti-federalist were those who favored strong state governments and a weak national government; opposed the ratification of the U.S. Constitution. 4. What were the major disagreements at the constitutional convention? - No bill of rights

ISSUE SOURCE OF LEGISLATIVE POWER | VIRGINIA PLANDerived from the people and based on popular representation| NEW JERSEY PLAN Derived from the states and based on equal votes for each state| GREAT COMPROMISEMix, from the people for one house, from the states for the other.| LEGISLATIVE STRUCTURE| Bicameral| Unicameral| Bicameral; one house of equal representation, another based on population| EXECUTIVE| Size undetermined; elected and removable by Congress| More than one person; removable by majority| Single executive; removed by impeachment – state majority| JUDICIARY| Life tenure; able to veto legislation in council of revision| No power over states| Life tenure, judicial review ambiguous| STATE LAWS| Legislature can override| Government can compel obedience to national laws| National supremacy| RATIFICATION| By the people| By the states| Ratification conventions in each state, thus allowing both the people and the states to be involved|

5. Define Federalism.
- A system of government in which power is divided between a national (federal) government and various regional governments. As defined by the United States Constitution, federalism is a fundamental aspect of American government, whereby the states are not merely regional representatives of the federal government, but are granted independent powers and responsibilities. With their own legislative branch, executive branch, and judicial branch, states are empowered to pass, enforce, and interpret laws, provided they do not violate the Constitution. This arrangement not only allows state governments to respond directly to the interests of their local populations, but also serves to check the power of the federal government. Whereas the federal government determines foreign policy, with exclusive power to make treaties, declare war, and control imports and exports, the states have exclusive power to ratify the Constitution. Most governmental responsibilities, however, are shared by state and federal governments: both levels are involved in such public policy issues as taxation, business regulation, environmental protection, and civil rights. 6. What was decided by McCulloch v. Maryland?

- The Supreme Court upheld the power of the national government and denied the right of a state to tax the federal bank using the Constitution’s supremacy clause. The courts broad interpretation of the necessary and proper clause paved the way for later rulings upholding expansive federal powers. - Made the court the final arbiter of constitutionality.

7. What are the different congressional committees?
Standing: permanent committees. Proposed bills are referred to committees, fewer than ten percent of bills are reported out to the floor. Joint: includes members from both houses
Conference:...
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