Gothic Architecture

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  • Topic: Gothic architecture, English Gothic architecture, Rose window
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  • Published : January 24, 2013
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GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE
Basilica churchearly Christian churchRomanesquegothic
- Religion grew more population
- complete opposite of classical architecture
- called "barbaric"; gothic age is considered one of Europe's outstanding artistic eras

Features of gothic architecture:
1. Plans- arranged for convenience rather than for symmetry (utilitarian) 2. Walls- rubble masonry not laid in horizontal courses
-materials were in small pieces
-walls were no longer load-bearing which contributed to the intervention of stained glass *posts carry the load instead
3. Openings- doors and windows were recessed and spanned by pointed arches
*spanned-nakapasok paloob
-windows were of enormous sizes for stained glass display
-windows were divided by vertical mullions and horizontal transoms
- tracery windows are trademarks
-tracery- an ornamental stonework on the upper part of a gothic window *plate tracery- stone dominates the window
*bar tracery- glass dominates the window
-colorful rose windows (form Romanesque windows) but differs because of the stained glass 4. Roofs- towers were crowned with spires and are predominant features
*are steep because of snowfall
*finial- decorative upper termination of a spire (usually ball + cross)
*crocket- the foliage decoration on the raking of the spire
*pinnacle- small towers, small spire
- vaulting was developed by means of the pointed arch with ribs
-open timber roofs are features
5. Columns- proportions were not observed
*triforum- blind rooms; divides the nave to the ceiling
- flying buttresses were used
6. Ornaments- sturdy craftsmanship, boldly executed
-motifs: medieval mysticism, stained glasses, Christian statues and subjects
-grotesques- or a chimera which serves only as an ornamental function
-gargoyles- are functional water sprouts and are said to scare off evil spirits

GOTHIC IN FRANCE
*gothic style is called "L" architecture (pointed arch)

Architectural Character: vaulting framework known as "ogival" system -chevet- an apse having a surrounding ambulatorychapels
-lady chapel- chapel dedicated to the Virgin Mary
-chantry chapel- for religious services
*less prominent transepts
-"fleche"-slender spire rising from a roof; center of nave

3 periods of French Gothic (periods were based on the evolution of the window tracery) 1. Primaire pd. (lancettes)- pointed arches and geometric traceried windows 2. Secondaire pd. (rayonnant)- circular windows with wheel tracery 3. Tertiare pd. (flamboyant)- a florid style and characterized by flame-like window tracery Cathedral churches

1. Albi cathedral- fortress church with a large vaulted hall, 18 m; widest in France 2. Amiens cathedral- slightly projecting transepts with 7 chapels 3. Beauvais cathedral- highest nave in Europe (98.5 m), 3 tiers of flying buttresses 4. Bourges cathedral- absence of transepts; double flying buttresses 5. Le mans cathedral- (St. Julienne) has a notable chevet with 13 chapels; triple flying buttresses 6. La sainte chapelle- first purpose was to be an exhibit for christ's stuff "true cross" "crown of thorns"; famous for its floor-to-ceiling stained glass 7. Chartres cathedral- latin rite catholic cathedral; has the most complete collections of medieval stained glasses in the world, 150 out of 186 -blue virgin window (Madonna and child)

-stone made bible, chartes
8. Strasbourg cathedral- most beautiful late gothic cathedral - the façade was filled with all types of gothic ornamentations
-142 m high; 6th tallest church in the world
-antique astronomical clock
9. Laon cathedral- known for its imposing tower
10. Notre Dame cathedral- designed by bishop Maurice de sully; restored and saved by Eugene violett le-duc; 700 yrs old
11. Reims cathedral- coronation church of the French kings and one of the finest gothic structures ever...
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