Global Warming and Climate Change

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ASSIGNMENT NO. 2
ASSIGNMENT NO. 2
11/26/2012
ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING-I | ROLE OF GLOBAL WARMING AND CLIMATE CHANGE ON OUR NATURAL RESOURCES AND THEIR EFFECTS ON PRODUCTIVITY OF INDIGENOUS CROPS.|

ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING-I | ROLE OF GLOBAL WARMING AND CLIMATE CHANGE ON OUR NATURAL RESOURCES AND THEIR EFFECTS ON PRODUCTIVITY OF INDIGENOUS CROPS.|

University of Engineering and Technology, Taxila
University of Engineering and Technology, Taxila

Submitted To: Dr. Naeem Ijaz | Submitted By: Aftab Ahmed 09-CE-59 |

INTRODUCTION AND HISTORY:
What is Global Warming?
Global warming is the rise in the average temperature of Earth's atmosphere and oceans since the late 19th century and its projected continuation. Since the early 20th century, Earth's mean surface temperature has increased by about 0.8 °C (1.4 °F), with about two-thirds of the increase occurring since 1980. Facts to be remembered:

Our planet is warming up, and not in a good way! The last 20 years were the hottest in 400 years, according to several studies. An upsurge in the amount of extreme weather events, such as wildfires, heat waves, and strong tropical storms, is also attributed in part to climate change by some experts. Between 1970 and 2004, global greenhouse gases (GHGs) have increased 70 per cent due to human activities. You don’t have to be an environmentalist to know that’s a massive jump in pollutants and a big problem for the effect it has on the planet’s natural temperature. It’s even worse for carbon dioxide; its annual emissions grew by about 80 per cent between the same periods. Our society is pouring carbon dioxide into the atmosphere much faster than plants and oceans can absorb it. What is Climate Change?

Climate change is a significant and lasting change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns over periods ranging from decades to millions of years. It may be a change in average weather conditions, or in the distribution of weather around the average conditions (i.e., more or fewer extreme weather events). Climate change is caused by factors that include oceanic processes (such as oceanic circulation), variations in solar radiation received by Earth, plate tectonics and volcanic eruptions, and human-induced alterations of the natural world; these latter effects are currently causing global warming, and "climate change" is often used to describe human-specific impacts. E! Science News says:

According to e! Science News, atmospheric CO2 is currently 385 parts per million (PPM) and is increasing by about two PPM each year from the burning of fossil fuels (coal, oil and natural gas) and from the burning of forests. Experts predict the point of no return is 450-500 PPM — so that leaves us around 30 years before it will be very uncomfortable to breathe natural air. That may sound a long way off … but it’s probably in most people’s lifetime According to Paul Krugman:

Paul Krugman, internationally renowned economist and author, painted precisely the current situation in his column for New York Times - "And as I watched the deniers make their arguments, I couldn’t help thinking that I was watching a form of treason — treason against the planet." It’s a basic fact that the Earth’s natural temperature is not going to stabilize itself unless we join our forces and start making a difference! Climate Models:

Climate models use quantitative methods to simulate the interactions of the atmosphere, oceans, land surface, and ice. They are used for a variety of purposes from study of the dynamics of the climate system to projections of future climate. All climate models take account of incoming energy from the sun as short wave electromagnetic radiation, chiefly visible and short-wave (near) infrared, as well as outgoing energy as long wave (far) infrared electromagnetic radiation from the earth. Any imbalance results in a change in temperature. Models can range from relatively simple to quite complex: * A simple...
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