Glass Ceiling Effect

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Glass ceiling
 Invisible but real barrier through which the next stage or level of advancement can be seen, but cannot be reached by a section of qualified and deserving employees. Such barriers exist due to implicit prejudice on the basis of age, ethnicity, political or religious affiliation, and/or sex. Although generally illegal, such practices prevalent in most countries.

While the phrase glass ceiling is metaphorical, many women who find themselves bumping their heads on it find it very real indeed. It is most often used to describe the sexist attitude many women run into at the workplace. In a discussion of ascending the corporate ladder, the word “ceiling” implies that there is a limit to how far someone can climb it. Along with this implied barrier is the idea that it is glass, meaning that, while it is very real, it is transparent and not obvious to the observer. The term glass ceiling is most often applied in business situations in which women feel, either accurately or not, that men are deeply entrenched in the upper echelons of power, and women, try as they might, find it nearly impossible to break through. Reasons for the glass ceiling:

-women lacked required skills and experience.
- They were restricted to clerical and other support services jobs. Mid-late 90s
-Trends started to change
-more women took up higher education in management
- looked for careers in operating area
-debate over the existence of the glass ceiling began.
* Cultural issues
* -male chauvinism
* Marriage
* Corporate organisations do not favour women
* Unwritten rule of not employing women.

Women managers are today praised for:
-soft skills
-good team work
-good communication skills
-style of management
-unique skills.

Types of glass ceiling barriers include:
1) Different pay for comparable work
2) Sexual, ethnic, racial, religious discrimination or harassment in the work...
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