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Synthesis
Directions: Write a well-organized, 700-1000 word essay synthesizing the following texts on the subject of academic dishonesty. You may summarize, paraphrase, or quote directly from these texts. You must cite at least 7 of the 8 texts. Be sure to cite your sources correctly and provide a list of Works Cited at the end, all according to the MLA Handbook, 7th ed. Also, include the following: 1) a title that calls attention to your focus; 2) an introduction with a thesis statement; 3) a conclusion. Assume that your audience is educated general readers. Text 1. From Charles Lipson’s book Doing Honest Work in College: How to Prepare Citations, Avoid Plagiarism, and Achieve Real Academic Success, published by the University of Chicago Press in Chicago in 2004.

Academic honesty boils down to three simple but powerful principles: 



When you say you did the work yourself, you actually did it. When you rely on someone else’s work, you cite it. When you use their words, you quote them openly and accurately, and you cite them, too.

When you present research materials, you present them fairly and truthfully. That’s true whether the research involves data, documents, or the writings of other scholars.

These are the bedrock principles, easy to remember and follow. They apply to all your classes, labs, papers, and exams. They apply to everyone in the university, from freshmen to professors. They’re not just principles for students. They’re principles for academic honesty across the entire university. (Page 3)

Text 2. From the book Cheating in School: What We Know and What We Can Do, by Stephen F. Davis, Patrick F. Drinan, and Tricia Bertram Gallant. Published in 2009 by Wiley-Blackwell in Chichester, U.K., and Malden, MA.

Cheating can be defined as deceiving or depriving by trickery, defrauding, misleading or fooling another. When we talk about student cheating, academic cheating, or academic misconduct, we are referring to acts committed by students that deceive, mislead, or fool the teacher into thinking that the academic work submitted by the student was a student’s own work. Academic cheating deprives the teacher of the ability to evaluate a student’s independent knowledge and abilities, as well as his or her progress in the class. Sometimes academic misconduct deprives the student of the learning opportunity intended by the teacher who created the academic assignment. And systematic and unaddressed academic cheating defrauds the public who believe that academic diplomas or degrees signify a certain level of accomplishment by the students who possess them. (Pages 2-3)

Students who persistently and uniformly complete their academic assignments in ways that shortcut effort and garner unfair advantage will learn habits of a cheating character. These children may eventually grow up to take shortcuts in life as a way to achieve personal goals, like the baseball player who takes steroids in order to beat an existing batting record or the business executive who “cooks the books” in order to artificially increase shareholder value. The Enron

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scandal of the early twenty-first century shows that cheaters do not just hurt themselves; they can ruin businesses, create financial and economic insecurities, and cause harm to thousands of bystanders. (Page 7)

As the following examples of cheating on tests indicate, students have been quick to make use of technological advances to assist them in academically dishonest pursuits. 






Student respondents reported that the popularity of programmable calculators skyrocketed when they discovered that these devices could send messages (such as answers to test questions) from one calculator to another.

Several students have used the miniature camera-pager technique. In this procedure, one student takes a miniature camera into the testing situation. The camera may be worn as part of a piece of jewelry (women) or part of a fraternity pin (men), and so...
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