Geoscience

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  • Topic: Earthquake, Seismic wave, Seismology and earthquake terminology
  • Pages : 5 (824 words )
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  • Published : January 27, 2013
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Test 3 Study Guide
Test 3 will cover chapters 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and the material presented on Hurricane Katrina and the recent earthquake in Japan. It will have 42 multiple-choice (2 points each) and 4 short answer/diagrams (4 points each).

Topics for review
* Earthquake terms:
* fault: break (fracture) in a rock
* rupture: breaking of rock along a fault
* hypocenter (focus): rupture point of rock below surface * epicenter: point on earth surface directly above hypocenter * scarp: topographic (elevation) display of a ruptured fault

* natural hazards
* what qualifies (how to qualify the size of an event-earthquakes) * different types based on different parameters:
* Modified Mercalli Scale: based on how much people felt the ground shake * very subjective, but all we have for past events * scale from I to XII
* Richter magnitude: based on size (amplitude) of largest seismic wave * easy to measure
* scale from 0 to ~9
* moment magnitude: based on amount of energy released by an event * more accurate because takes into account specific factors about the fault (slip area, rigidity of rock, etc.) * scale from 0 to ~10

* How do we report events:
* observations, journals (Mercalli)
* seismograms (Richter)
* record movement (displacement) of earth in three directions * vertical (up and down)
* horizontal (left and right)
* transverse (front and back)
* known information about specific fault (moment)
* (again) each wave type has a characteristic size, by looking at a seismogram that recorded an EQ, we can see when the different wave types arrived * How do we know where the EQ happens?

* Can analyze multiple seismograms to tell where an EQ’s hypocenter was * We know the time the difference between the amount of times the different wave types took to get to the seismogram * We know how long it takes those wave types to travel a certain distance * Magnitude versus frequency relationship

* Richter magnitude (M) is predominantly used
* for each 1 step up in M, there are ~1/10 of the number of events from before * for each 1 step up in M, there is an ~10x increase in ground shaking * for each 1 step up in M, there is an ~30x increase in energy release * potential benefits

* fundamental principles and how we understand them
* predicting versus forecasting
* warning systems
* risk
* anticipating and controlling impacts
* trends and causes
* rivers and flooding
* river characteristics (floodplains, drainage basins, discharge, etc.) * dynamic equilibrium
* channel patterns and meander effects)
* flooding characteristics
* flood ranking and recurrence intervals
* recurrence interval (how often a fault is active) found by: * paleoseismic data: average time between events, according to geologic data * slip rate: average movement (displacement) divided by movement per year * seismicity: averaging time between historical earthquakes * effects of urbanization on flooding

* controlling flood hazards
* drawbacks of controlling flood hazards
* slope processes
* different types of landslides
* driving forces versus resisting forces
* safety factor
* factors affecting flop stability (material, angle, climate, vegetation, water, time, human influence) * recognizing hazardous slopes
* prevention efforts
* causes of subsidence
* earthquakes
* hypocenter and focus versus epicenter
* magnitude scales (names, similarities, and differences) * magnitude versus frequency
* intraplate versus...
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