Geology Study Guide One

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Study Guide 1 Geol 105 Spring 2012
Terms and People to know
Amino acids –compound of life- proteins.
Archaea – best candidate for earliest life. Live in extreme environments. BIF –Banded Iron Formation
Mistaken Point- New foundland. Marine environments. Branching structure. fractal body plan Uniformitarianism- The theory that all geologic phenomena may be explained as the result of existing forces having operated uniformly from the origin of the earth to the present time.the laws of nature have not changed in the course of time C. Lyell –father of modern geology, advocated uniformitarianism approach to study geologic history. Coelom – hollow body cavity where internal organs can develop. Trace Fossils-found in Coconino sandstone

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Dust Bunnies – small particles of dust that have clumped together to form large clumps of dust. Huronian Glaciation- when methane was reduced in the atmosphere and the world freezes completely over. Huronian Ice Age Ediacaran Fauna –first metazoan fauna found in Australia about 600 million years. Snow line – it divides inner rocky planets from outer volatile-rich (gas giants) planets. Our solar system’s snow line, falls between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. Eukaryotic cells – Larger Required oxygen and protection from UV radiation. Ozone Extinction – 5 extinctions occurred in the last 600 million years. Hox genes- master genes control structural genes found with in all metazoans. Organelles

Rodinia -first supercontinent.
Ozone – layers in the atomophere
Planet embryos – planetesimals collide and adhere
Prokaryotic cells- first cells
Little Shelly Fauna – the first appearance of skeletonized taxa in the rock record. Sexual reproduction- the DNA of two individuals are shuffled and re-dealt to their offspring, similar but not identical to their parent. Siccar Point, Scotland

Endosymbiotic model

Stromatolites- Oldest fossils, dense mounds of microves that still grow in warm, shallow water. Communities of blue-green algae. Tommotian fauna- Little shelly fauna, location
Isua, Greenland-location of bioevidence of the early appearance of life. Chemical evidence. Basic Info
1. What is uniformitarianism and why is this important concept used to study historical geology? Erosion, deposition, uplift. Applied the principle of uniformitarianism to examine rocks. 2. Briefly explain how geologists can formulate theories about events that occurred on Earth before humans were here to make observations. Humans can look at fossil records and uniformities of rocks to formulate theories. 3. Why does the principle of uniformitarianism lead to the conclusion that the age of Earth is great? The result, therefore, of our present enquiry is, that we find no vestige of a beginning- no prospect of an end. – very old earth. The events in earth eruptions, process is the same as it did over time. Leads us to understand that the earth is billions of years old. Knowing that rocks are old. 4. Briefly explain the significance of Hutton's observations at Siccar Point, Scotland. Found uniformitarianism, applied the principle of uniformitarianism to examine rocks. Fossils

1. What are fossils? Tangible remains or signs of ancient organisms, most are found in sedimentary rocks. 2. Describe the different types of unconformities.

3. The fossil record is strongly biased towards what type of organisms? Biased towards marine organisms. Because it is buried quickly, under sediments they have hard parts, were oxygen can’t get to. 4. What is the difference between absolute time and relative time? Relative time-no mumbers indicating how long ago each of these times occurred, sequence of eons, eras, periods, epochs. Absolute dating results in specific dates, uses radiometric dating. 5. Who was Bishop Usher and what happened on October 26 4004 BC at 9 AM? Using the Book of Genesis, he followed the series of “begats” back in time and determinded that the universe was created October 26,...
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