Geography Exam Review

Topics: Precipitation, Earth, Population Pages: 22 (4903 words) Published: September 25, 2014
Unit 1 : Canadian Connections
Population Density (people per km²) – number of people living per unit of an area
Formula for Population Density: POPULATION/AREA
Largest countries by area and population
Top Five Countries by Population: Top Five Countries by Area: 1. China 1. Russia 2. India 2. Canada 3. USA 3. China 4. Indonesia 4. USA 5. Brazil 5. Brazil (16. Canada)

Gross Domestic Product per capita (GDP):
Total value of the goods and services produced within a country per person, excluding transactions with other countries Human Development Index (HDI):
Index that includes measures of health (life expectancy) , education, and wealth (GDP) to indicate a country’s level of human development Unit 2: Method of Geographic Inquiry
Scale Conversion:
Ratio: measured in cm
Direct Statement: uses word to describe the relationship between a distance on a map and specific distance on Earth’s surface, for example, 1 cm to 10km. This means if the distance between two towns on a map is one cm, the actual distance between the towns is 10 kilometers.

Longitude and Latitude:
Longitude - are the “vertical” lines on a map and imaginary lines on the earth used to calculate east or west.
Latitude - are the 'horizontal' lines - they are used to calculate distance north or south of the equator (a line of latitude around the 'middle' of the world - 0 degrees).
Equator - an imaginary line drawn around the earth equally distant from both, north and south poles, dividing the earth into northern and southern hemispheres and constituting the parallel of latitude 0°.

Types of Map: Thematic (Choropleth), General Purpose, Topographic:
Thematic (Chloropleth)
maps designed to show information on one particular topic or theme
General Purpose
provide many types of information on one map features: bodies of water, park, roads, railway lines
e.g. atlas maps, road maps, wall maps
Topographic
type of map characterized by large detail on both natural and manmade features
two important features:
contour lines, which show changes in elevation
grid system, used for locating places on the map

Remote Sensing, GPS, Satellite:
Remote Sensing
study of characteristics of earth using photographs and electronic images taken from aircraft and satellites
Global Positioning System (GPS)
satellite navigation system that is used to compute the exact longitude and longitude position of any place on earth
Satellite
manufactured object that is launched by a rocket and circles Earth
used to communicate, study Earth’s resources, aid the military
Geostationary Orbit
satellite orbiting around 36000 km above the Earth at speed that keeps it exactly above the same place on Earth
Near-Polar Orbit
fixed north-south orbit followed by satellites as Earth rotates below them Unit 3: Physical Connections
Alfred Wegner’s Theory of Continental Drift:
Suggested that about 300 million years ago all of earth’s land masses, which were in constant motion, collided and formed one supercontinent.
He called it PANGAEA which means “all land”.
About 200 million years ago the supercontinent of Pangaea started to break up.
The pieces drifted in different directions to their present positions. Four Proofs:
Saw the jigsaw (puzzle) fit between South America and Africa
Found fossils of the same plants and animals on both continents and believed that they could exist in both places only if the continents were joined together.
Mountains are similar in age and structure both sides of the Atlantic Ocean-the Appalachians in the eastern United States and Canada, and...
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