Exam One Study Guide
Chapter 1: Geography
What is geography? What do geographers study? How is geography interdisciplinary? What is cartography and GIS? What is the grid system and its parts? What are map projections, and how do they distort the Earth? What is a region and how are they determined? What is a transition zone? What are interregional linkages?
What are the internal forces and external forces that shape the physical environment? What is plate tectonics, and how does it shape the Earth’s surface? What was Pangaea? What hazards result from tectonic processes? What is the Ring of Fire? What are weathering, erosion and deposition, and how do they shape the Earth’s surface? What is glaciation, and what effect does it have on the landscape? How are climate and weather different? What are the two controls of climate? How do latitude, proximity to water, elevation and prevailing winds effect the controls of climate? What is orographic precipitation? What is the rain shadow? What are low pressures and high pressures, and their characteristics? What major pressure belts exist on Earth, and what climates are associated with them? Look over the map of Climate Regions to get a general idea where different climates are found.
What are global warming and climate change? What are the possible effects of climate change? What is the water footprint? What is virtual water?
What is demography? What is the J-Curve, and what caused it? What is the Demographic Transition Model? Can you draw, label and explain it? What are age and gender structures (population pyramids), and what can they tell us about a society? What is the missing female problem?
How are gender and sex different? How are gender roles defined in relation to space? How do the traditional gender roles for women in many societies disadvantage them? What is race? Why is it historically important?
What is economic development? What is GDP per capita, and why is it problematic as a measure of development? What are GDP per capita PPP, HDI, and F/MEI, and what are their benefits as measures? What are the formal economy and informal economy? What are the primary, secondary and tertiary economic sectors? What is sustainable development? What is the global economy? How was it facilitated by European colonialism? What are Multinational Corporations (MNCs)? What is free trade? What are the WTO, World Bank and IMF, and what do they do? What are the pros and cons of free trade?
What was the Neolithic Revolution? What are hearths? What is diffusion? What was the Green Revolution? What is carrying capacity?
What is democratization, and how is it being facilitated? What is geopolitics? Know the three geopolitical eras we discussed, and their characteristics. What is a nation, a nation-state, and a pluralistic-state?
Know the following terms: culture, culture or ethnic group, cultural homogenization, cultural identity, multiculturalism. How do cultural values contribute to cultural diversity? How do religion and belief systems influence the landscape? What are lingua francas? What are material culture and technology, and how do they impart lifestyle?
Chapter 2: North America
What are the major landforms of North America (NA), and what are their characteristics? What impact did glaciers have on the landscape? What climate types are found in NA, and where? How has logging transformed the landscape? What is clear cutting? What are some of the issues with coal? Know the issues with hazardous waste production in the region. What is urban sprawl, and what problems are created from it? What is the Ogallala Aquifer, why is it important, and what are the problems with its use?
When did the first people come to the region, from where, and how? What technologies did they develop? What happened to their populations after European arrival? How did the plantation economy of the South limit industrial development? What were the characteristics of early...
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