Geo Notes

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SSA owed 3 billion in 1962z 142 bill after 20 yrs, and now 235 billion. Paris club of government creditors: raised lending from 424 mill to 2.9 bill. Chapter one:
- Human population increases exponentially while food production only increases arithmetic ally -one of two corrections to population growth:
Raise food prices so that couples delay marriage and number of children in family Positives checks such as famine, disease and war.
American economist Julian Simon: limits to population is not meaningful. Each person adds resources to our planet. Annual growth rate of the world: 0.02 to 0.17 to 0.98 in the 19th to 21st century. Rate of pop growth began to slow: 1 billion people took 12 years for both the fifth and sixth billion. Reasons for growth:

Lowering death rates
Increasing life expectancies
90% pop growth in developing countries. Most in Asia, declining in Europe. American baby consumes 80 times the resources as indian.
Developing countries have a wide base which means that there will be a lot of children entering their reproductive years and thus raise the population. Most countries in Europe and some in Asia have below avg fertility rates. Sub Saharan regions have fast pop growth rates, but it also fell. Bangladesh: 6.7 to 3.1. Turkey: 4.3 to 1.7, Kenya: 8.1 to 4.9. Africa will double its pop in the next 25 yrs. 5.3 avg fertility. Stage one: centel africa. Death rages high birty rates high. Children die young so families have more. They do work at the age of six to seven and by twelve they're producing more than they consume. Provide security for when parents are of old age. Stage two: death rates fall, birth rates stay cuz of cultural reasons. Kenya, Afghanistan, Stage three: birth rates fall as well.china, chile, israel.

Stage 4: low death and birth rates. Declining population.
Demographic transition model based in europe's experience. Other countries seem to pass through the model quicker. Gives people who R concerned some hope....
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