Psychology- study of the human mind or animal behavior.
History: Psyche: “soul/mind”
*Behaviorists are interested in overt behavior
*cognitivists: believes not all behaviors are seen.
-Ancient Greek Philosopher’s Period- assumptions that are not verified from reality. (Socrates,Plato,Aristotle,Democritus,Galen) -Medieval Period(St. Thomas,St. Augustine)
-Pre-Modern- Psychology is not yet a science.
-Modern- Wilhelm Wundt(1879) – father of psychology,established a lab @ Leipzig,Germany
SCHOOLS OF THOUGHT:
1.) Structuralism – focused in exploring the individual element of consciousness. Founder -Wundt (1832-1920)
SUBJECT MATTER: atoms of unconscious experience;knowledge of how the atoms combine to create our experience. Methods: introspection as the tool for data gathering
* Edward Titchner transferred Wundt’s idea to America; structuralism ended with his death. ELEMENTS OF CONSCIOUSNESS:
2.) Functionalism- how our consciousness function to adapt in the environment. * William James – founder
* Concepts: consciousness can’t be divided; it is personal and always changing. Methods: introspection,use of measurement for recording,objective manifestation of the mind,study of creation and products,study of anatomy and physiology. 3.) Cognitive Psychology-refers to an information processing view of an individual’s psychological functions. Jean Piaget – made stages to cognitive development.
* Developed an interest in the intellectual development of children STAGES OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT:
c.) concrete operational
d.) formal operational
4.) Behaviourism – all behaviors are influenced by the environment Methods:
a.) Classical – a technique wherein a naturally occurring stimulus is paired with a response. b.) Operant conditioning – reward and punishment; changing of behavior...
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