General Psychology Cheat Sheet

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Chap. 9
Psychological Assessment: The use of specified procedures to evaluate abilities, behaviors and personal qualities, measurement of individual differences because the majority of assessments specify how an individual is different from or similar to other people on a given dimension Sir Francis Galton: Hereditary genius in 1869,

Galton’s Ideas of Intelligence: Differences are quantifiable, Differences form a bell shaped curve or normal distribution, Intelligence(mental ability) can be measure by objective tests, Correlations(extent to which two sets of test scores were related), Eugenics Movement (improving human species by applying evolutionary theory to encouraging biologically superior people to interbreed while discouraging biologically inferior people from having offspring) Reliability: Stability, consistency of scores produced by an instrument Test/Retest Reliability: Test given on 2 separate occasions, measured by a correlation, a perfectly reliable test yields a correlation coefficient of 1.00+ Parallel Forms: Different versions of a test, reduces the effects of direct practice of test questions, memory of test questions and desire of an individual to appear consistent from one test to the next Internal Consistency: Degree to which test yields similar scores across it’s different parts Split-Half Reliability: A measure of the correlation between test takers performance on different halves, Odd vs even numbers on a test Validity: Extent to which a test measures what it was intended to measure Content Validity: The test measures the full range of the domain of interest Criterion Validity (predictive validity): psychologists compare a person’s score on the test with his or her score on some other standard Construct Validity: The degree to which it adequately measures the underlying construct * Reliability is measured by the degree to which a test correlates with itself, and validity is measured by the degree to which the test correlates with something external * A test that is not reliable is usually also not valid because a test that cannot predict itself will be unable to predict anything else Norms: Standards based on measurements of a large group of people Standardization: Uniform procedures for treating each participant in research Intelligence: The global capacity to profit experience and to go beyond given information about the environment Alfred Binet and Theophile Simon: Mental and Chronological age Lewis Terman: Stanford Binet Intelligence scale (1916), Intelligence Quotient (IQ), IQ was a numerical, standardized measure of intelligence, William Stern named it

Wechsler Intelligence Scale: Bellevue Hospital Ny-stopped dependence on verbal skills for S-B test. Wechsler-Bellevue test PERFORMANCE, non verbal test. Nonverbal IQ. Now WAdultIntelligenceScale-IV=five subtests(Verbal comprehension: similarities, vocab-Perpceptual Reasoning:blockshapes, picture completing-Working memory:digit span, arithmetic-Process Speed:symbol,cancellation-

Mental Retardation: Age of onset is before 18 years of age, IQ score of 70-75 or below, demonstrated limitations in 2 or more adaptive life skills
Learning Disorders: A large discrepancy between an individuals measured IQ and his or her achievements
Giftedness: IQ score above 130, Joseph Renzulli Three ring conception (Ability, creativity, task commitment)
Psychometrics: Field of psychology that specializes in mental testing in any of its facets, including personality assessments, intelligence evaluation and aptitude measurement
Factor Analysis: a statistic procedure that detects a smaller number of dimensions, clusters or factors within a larger set of independent variables
Charles Spearman: Discovered that the performance of individuals on each of a variety of intelligence tests was highly correlated, a factor of general intelligence underlying all intelligent performances

Raymond Cattel: Crystallized Intelligence (involves the knowledge a person...
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