General Overview: UNIX Internals

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Course Branch Year Semester

: B.E., : Computer Science and Engineering : IV CSE : VII

CS2028 UNIX INTERNALS

UNIT I II III IV V

TOPIC GENERAL OVERVIEW OF THE SYSTEM BUFFER CACHE SYSTEM CALLS FOR FILE SYSTEM THE STRUCTURE OF PROCESSES PROCESS SCHEDULING AND MEMORY MANAGEMENT POLICIES

Prepared by S.Subashini, Assistant Professor Department of Computer Science and Engineering

CS2028 – UNIX INTERNALS UNIT I GENERAL OVERVIEW OF THE SYSTEM

LTPC 300 3

9 History − System structure − User perspective − Operating system services − Assumptions about hardware − Introduction to the kernel − Architecture of the UNIX operating system − Introduction to system concepts − Kernel data structures – System administration − Summary and preview. UNIT II BUFFER CACHE 9 Buffer headers − Structure of the buffer pool − Advantages and disadvantages of the buffer cache − Internal representation of files − Inodes − Structure of a regular file − Directories − Conversion of a path name to an inode − Super block − Other file types. UNIT III SYSTEM CALLS FOR FILE SYSTEM 9 Open − Read − Write − File and record locking − Adjusting the position of file I/O − LSEEK − Close − File creation − Creation of special files − Pipes − Dup – Mounting and unmounting file systems. UNIT IV THE STRUCTURE OF PROCESSES 9 Process states and transitions − Layout of system memory − The context of a process − Saving the context of a process − Process control − Process creation − Signals − Process termination − Awaiting process termination − Invoking other programs – The shell − System boot and the INIT process. UNIT V PROCESS SCHEDULING AND MEMORY MANAGEMENT POLICIES 9 Process scheduling − Memory management policies − Swapping − A hybrid system with swapping and demand paging − The I/O subsystem − Driver interfaces – Disk drivers − Terminal drivers. Total: 45 TEXT BOOK 1. Maurice J. Bach, “The Design of the Unix Operating System”, PHI, 2004. REFERENCE 1. Vahalia, “Unix Internals: The New Frontiers”, Pearson Education Inc, 2003. 2. John Lion, "Lion's Commentary on UNIX", 6th edition, Peer-to-Peer Communications, 2004. 3. Daniel P. Bovet & Marco Cesati, “Understanding the Linux Kernel”, O’REILLY, 4. Shroff Publishers &Distributors Pvt. Ltd, 2000. 5. M. Beck et al, “Linux Kernel Programming”, Pearson Education Asia, 2002

Unit I – General Overview of the System Contents:
1. History 2. System Structure 3. User Perspective 4. Operating System Services 5. Assumptions about Hardware 6. Introduction to the Kernel 7. Architecture of the Unix Operating System 8. Introduction to System Concepts 9. Kernel Data Structures 10. System Administration 11. Summary and Preview

1. History
1965 - Bell Telephone Laboratories was involved in a project with General Electric and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology to develop a multiuser operating system called Multics. o Goal of Multics:  Simultaneous computer access.  To supply ample computation power and data storage  To all users to share data easily. Multics didn’t provide general service computing for which it was intended. To improve the programming environment, Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie of Bell Labs sketched a paper design of a file system – early version of Unix file system. Thompson wrote programs in a demand paging environment & encoded a simple kernel for the GE645 computer. Thompson and Ritchie with Brain Kernighan (member of Computing Service Research Center) implemented their system design on PDP-7, including the early version of Unix file system, the process subsystem and a small set of utility programs. – this system is given the name UNIX. While providing a text processing system for the patent department at Bell labs, the Unix system was moved to a PDP-11 in 1971. o The system was characterized by its small size:  16 Kbytes for the system,  8 Kbytes for user program,  A disk of 512 Kbytes, and  A limit of 64 Kbytes per file. Thompson set out to implement a Fortran compiler for the new...
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